There are many presidents and leaders who have ruled the fate of a country, defining the broad lines of what happens in the territory and how it is structured and acts at the political, institutional, social and economic level.
In the case of Mexico, we are facing a country with a turbulent history in which there have been multiple ideological disputes between different social classes. One of the best known and beloved presidents, who sought to seek equal rights and respect for people of different social classes, was Benito Juárez. It is about him that we will speak in this article, in which there is a short biography of Benito Juárez.
Biography of Benito Juárez
Benito Pablo Juárez Garci’a was born in San Pablo de Guelatao, Oaxaca, on March 21, 1806. From an indigenous family (members of the Zapoteques group) and devoted to agriculture, his fathers were Marcelino Juárez and Brígida Garci ‘a. Unfortunately, both parents died young, when the little one was three years old.
After the death of these, he and his sisters were left in the care of their grandparents, who, dying soon after, left the future president under the tutelage of their uncle Bernardino. This man would introduce him to the world of pasture and make him work as a shepherd in the field, in addition to speaking Spanish. Beyond that, the child he had no type of training, being his locality a rural area without a school (What Juárez considered necessary when he wanted to receive an education).
Academic training and first jobs
In 1818, Juárez lost one of the sheep which, for fear of possible reprisals, made him flee. After that, he went to Oaxaca in search of one of his sisters, who worked for a merchant named Antonio Maza. The latter welcomed him and gave him work. On top of that soon after the young man meet a priest named Salanueva, with whom he would begin to learn the trade of bookbinder and it helped him enroll in a local school. In 1821, Salanueva helped to enter the seminary of Santa Cruz, where the young person obtained excellent marks.
However, monastic life and theology did not attract the young, who at twenty years of age left this seminary to enroll at the Institute of Sciences and Arts of the State of Oaxaca. In the Institute he began to study law and jurisprudence, the breed of which graduated in 1834.
After completing his training, he was hired as a physics teacher, at the same time he began to devote himself to the legal defense of indigenous communities and the poorer classes. This led him to be accused of trying to promote a revolt among indigenous communities., Something that ended up imprisoning him.
Politics and governance
In 1831 Juárez was chosen like town councilor of the city council of Oaxaca, during a year after being named deputy. after he was slowly rising in the world of politics. Yet at that time there was a conflict between liberal and conservative regarding the struggle by the elimination of privileges of the clergy and the army, which concluded with the victory of the military and which made that Juárez would temporarily withdraw. of political life.
Also in his facet of lawyer increased with the passage of time, and in 1841 he had succeeded to be a civil judge of Oaxaca. With this he would also return to politics, in which he was appointed deputy minister of the High Court of Justice.
In 1843 married with Daisy mace, daughter of its old owner and protector Antonio Mace. He will later be appointed deputy of Oaxaca to the Congress of the Union, and after this co-governor of the state.
in 1846 the so-called Mexican-American war has started, A conflict between the United States and Mexico in which Juárez participated realizing proposals that obtained that its country could face the expenses of the war. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Noble, which Juárez opposed losing much of its territory to Mexico. Among other actions, General Santa Anna refused entry, fleeing the Americans, which would generate his resentment.
In 1847, the federal deputy and later governor of Oaxaca appointed him. During this period his action contributed to generate infrastructures, schools and various advances, at the same time as the rector of the Institute of Sciences and Arts of Oaxaca was appointed to him. But in 1853 general Santa Anna took the power, which caused that Juárez was arrested and was even close to being rationalized, later to decide its exile in Cuba. Juárez travels to New Orleans, where he meets several exiles who plan to overthrow the general.
The call formed Revolution of Ayutla, that in 1855 obtained that general Santa Anna retires of the presidency and the liberal ones arrive at the power. The new president has decided to appoint Benito Juárez Minister of Justice. Also in 1857, they were able to decree a Constitution.
Presidency and conflicts
In 1857, Benito Juárez was appointed Minister of the Interior and President of the Supreme Court of Justice, during the term of President Comonfort. however in 1855 a coup d’état took place, Advocated by Comonfort himself to overthrow the government, caused the resignation of the president. His resignation returned Juárez to the presidency according to his country’s constitution, although the coup perpetrators (who supported the ecclesiastical and military establishment and opposed liberal policies) nominated Zuloaga as president.
This meant that after being jailed, Juárez traveled to Guanajuato and Guadalajara, where he could form a government and of which he would be officially named president. The Three Years’ War would begin, in which the liberals of Juárez and the conservatives of Zuluaga would fight until in 1860 they first achieved victory.
Both the difficult conditions of the war and its expenses made Juárez suspend the foreign debt, something which also resulted in that France invaded Mexico and appointed to Maximiliano I Emperor of Mexico. This meant a new war that would end with the death of Maximilian in 1867.
After that, Juárez would be re-elected and would try again to promote reform of the system and the defense of freedom and equality. In fact on the basis of this meritorious of the Americas was appointed to him. however some of his policies have made several politicians fearful of wanting to take office by force, Which meant that Congress was turning hostile. Despite this, the elections of 1867 were favorable to him and allowed him to remain as agent director general.
The last years and death
Years passed and with them Benito Juárez began to suffer from various medical complications. In 1870, the president suffered from what was called at the time a stroke, In which the president would manifest bradycardia among other problems, and this would be repeated shortly thereafter. Adding to this predicament was the fact that his wife was diagnosed with terminal cancer in 1869, an illness that would end the woman’s life in 1871.
During that same Juárez year would be reelected president, but their long political life and their emotional state and of health would cause that it existed displeased on the part of a part of the population. Among this opposition was the figure of Porfirio Diaz, who severely criticized the re-election and even accused him of being a dictator. He even took up arms, some conflicts and riots which ended up being suppressed.
A year later, in March, Benito Juárez he had angina that he managed to overcome. However, months later, the Mexican president began to suffer a relapse of his heart disease as he held a series of hearings with various prominent figures and government and military officials. Soon after and already at home, the situation would get worse and worse until he finally ended his life. The death occurred in Mexico City on July 18, 1872, at the age of 66.
- Fernández Ruiz, J. (2006). Juárez and his contemporaries (1st edition). Institute of Legal Research: National Autonomous University of Mexico.
- Salmerón, P. (2007). Juárez. The never-ending rebellion. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta.