Benjamin Bloom was an American psychologist and educator who made significant contributions in the field of mastery learning and in the taxonomy of educational goals.
His work has influenced many educational fields in the second half of the 21st century and has led to a better understanding of children’s cognitive development.
Let’s look at the life of this psychologist throughout a brief biography of Benjamin Bloom, In which we will know what was his work and his theory of the taxonomy of educational goals.
Biography of Benjamin Bloom
This is a summary of the life of Benjamin Bloom, including his life and professional career.
Childhood and youth
Benjamin Samuel Bloom was born in Lansford, Pennsylvania, USA on February 21, 1913. He was the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia, who fled the discrimination that existed in the country against this group at the turn of the century.
From an early age he showed his great curiosity for the world and for knowledge. From his early years he was an insatiable reader, and if he was given the opportunity to research something he had read in any book, he did not hesitate to do so.
He was good at learning what he had read. He was also renowned for his reading skills and comprehension, to the point that in the library where he had borrowed the books, he was not allowed to return the same day he picked them up, as it was not believed that they could read a book. all in less than a day.
Benjamin Bloom received his BA from Pennsylvania State University in 1935 and later he received his doctorate in education in 1942 from the University of Chicago. He was admitted as a member of the University of Chicago Examination Board, holding that post until 1943. After that, he became a university examiner until 1959.
He has traveled the world and has come to serve as an educational advisor to the governments of developing countries and to the establishment of democratic regimes, such as Israel and India.
Benjamin Bloom saw education as a process in which to strive for success it goes beyond what is purely scholastic. Education was the way that, as long as it was done in the most appropriate way, could extract the full human potential of the students. Education needs to acquire an optimistic view of students, to see them as people who, if they set out to do so, can achieve their dreams.
Bloom’s so human vision for education was a real source of inspiration for other educational psychologists, pedagogues and educational philosophers, In addition to those who had the opportunity to become his students.
Benjamin Bloom died in Chicago, Illinois, United States on September 13, 1999, at the age of 86.
Contributions as a researcher
Bloom has had a profound influence in the field of educational psychology. His main contributions to this discipline have been his ideas on mastery learning, children’s cognitive development and his famous taxonomy of educational objectives.
His work has focused on research in the study of education from a psychological perspective, particularly in relation to the cognitive, emotional and psychomotor aspects of learning.
Cognitive aspects refer to the ability of students to use information learned in class in a useful and meaningful way. Emotions would be linked to feelings and attitudes generated by the educational process. Finally, psychomotor aspects are everything that is involved in physical skills, such as handling objects or exercising the body, to acquire new knowledge.
In 1956, he published his major work, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain, in which he presented his new educational model. This taxonomy was developed to help teachers in their teaching work, especially define what are the educational objectives to be achieved in the classroom.
The main idea of this taxonomy is that not all educational goals should be treated and prioritized in the same way. For example, memorizing historical dates, while important, is not the same as analyzing the historical facts behind them, the political depth of the events that occurred and how they shaped society. company to the present day.
Taxonomy of educational goals
This is a classification of the different goals that educators should offer to students. Benjamin Bloom divided these goals into three areas:
It is mastery of how people react emotionally to educational content. In this domain, there are five levels: reception, response, evaluation, organization and characterization.
It concerns the skills to physically manipulate objects, Just like the tools.
Although Bloom and his colleagues didn’t really rank this area, several educational psychologists gave it sublevels. Some of them are: reflexes, fundamental movements, perception, physical skills, expert movements and non-verbal communication.
this domain it refers to acquired knowledge in its most literal form, In addition to understanding new information and critical thinking skills.
Traditionally, education has sought to reinforce the skills found in this area, in particular to memorize what is explained in class.
In the taxonomy of educational goals this domination is subdivided into 6 levels, which go from the lowest level to the highest level: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
Some detractors of Bloom agree with him in these categories which form the cognitive domain, but do not view this as the actual hierarchy, the change of order, or considering that most of these levels are in fact subcomponents. which acquire the same importance in learning. treat.
Benjamin Bloom’s legacy
This psychologist has come to be regarded as a guru in the field of educational psychology. Outraged, he was a prominent educational activist. He played an important role in the founding of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).
When I was in the education department at the University of Chicago, developed the MESA program (measurement, evaluation and statistical analysis) with the aim of preparing students with very striking critical thinking skills for a specialized type of education, in order to make the most of their potential.
- Bloom, BS (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, Manual 1: Cognitive domain. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.