Ralph W. Tyler was considered one of the most important educators in the United States in the 20th century, thanks to his work and research in the field of education in his country, highlighting his curriculum model which will be explained in this article.
Tyler’s curriculum model was defined by its author as a rational method that has been nourished by other disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, sociology, economics and organization in order to find the foundations that can be brought on the basis of applied science to the field of education.
This curriculum model sought to develop a curriculum in schools in a functional manner and in accordance with the demands of the students, as well as of the center, in order to best prepare the students for their future university internship and also for its adult internship.
Here you will find a biography biography of Ralph W. Tyler, to learn about his long career devoted to the field of education.
Brief biography of Ralph W. Tyler
Ralph W. Tyler was born in Chicago on April 22, 1902. His father, William A. Tyler, was a Reverend.
He graduated from Donas University (Nebraska) and later, in 1923, received his Masters from the University of Nebraska. In 1927, Tyler received his doctorate from the University of Chicago.
While earning his doctorate, he taught at the University of Nebraska (1922-1927) and later at Tyler. he was hired as a professor at the University of North Carolina, where he taught for 2 years.
I work as a professor and researcher at Ohio State University
After completing his teaching job in North Carolina, Tyler transferred to teach education classes at Ohio State University and combining it with his work as an associate researcher in the University’s Office of Educational Research, where he worked for a decade.
In 1934, he published an article entitled Constructing Achievement Tests.
Presentation of the “eight-year study”
Tyler had specialized in a method of measuring the application of educationwas that before arriving at the University of Chicago for his doctorate, he had conducted the “eight-year study” which was used to measure the degree to which students were able to retain the information provided by teachers when they were giving lessons.
With this study, it was possible to see which students learned best at their own pace and which were the advantaged students who could retain more information, which made it easier for them to learn.
Tyler met with the president of the University of Chicago to explain his method of implementation at the university. and, despite the university’s commitment to a classic education model, which prevailed at the time, the rector decided to take a risk and hire Tyler as the chief examiner and director of the exam board, as well as a professor of education and chair of the Department of Education. Tyler then agreed and returned to Chicago to continue his education at the University of Chicago.
He then published an article entitled Assessment and Record of Student Progress, in collaboration with ER Smith, in 1942.
Dean of Social Sciences
In 1946, Tyler was appointed Acting Dean of Social Sciences at the University of Chicago, and two years later he was officially appointed Dean. During his tenure as dean, he succeeded in accelerating the committees between the different departments of the university and promoted the implementation of interdisciplinary studies in the faculty.
Tyler was also involved in college life, contributing to a radio show in Chicago, where he participated in a panel discussion on education. In addition, during this time he was responsible for periodically publishing the results he obtained from his research in the field of education.
His contributions to education in the mid-twentieth century
In 1943, Tyler was hired to serve as the official director of examination personnel for the United States Armed Forces. During this 11-year stay, Tyler was responsible for administering a series of tests that measured the effectiveness of military academies training programs. In 1949, he published an article entitled Basic Curriculum and Instruction.
In 1953, Tyler stopped working at the University of Chicago to embark on new projects in California. The he founded the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, of which he was also director. In order to make this new project a reality, he obtained funding from the Ford Foundation.
In the 1960s, Tyler embarked on a project with several colleagues from the National Assessment of Education for Progress, responsible for measuring the country’s educational success.
In 1965, he collaborated in the drafting of the law on primary and secondary education, and in 1967 he completed his work as director of the center he had founded in 1953, with help from the Ford Foundation.
In 1976 he published an article titled “Perspectives on American Education.” Also noteworthy is his work published in 1986 for the International Journal of Education entitled “Changing Concepts of Educational Assessment”.
The last years and death
Throughout the 1980s, traveled continuously from California to the University of Massachusetts to teach and collaborate as an advisor to the Coalition for School Improvement. His style of testing was widely known throughout the country and even in various foreign countries, and was renamed “Tyler Rationale”.
His method was initially rejected as unorthodox by advocate for the need for parents and teachers to participate in all levels of school reform.
The main goal of the teaching method Tyler adopted throughout his life was to teach students how to stand up for themselves and function properly as citizens in society.
It should be noted that Tyler he went so far as to advise six presidents of the United States during his long career as a researcher in pedagogy and precursor of his curriculum model.
On February 18, 1994, Ralph W. Tyler died of unsuccessful cancer at the age of 92.
Ralph W. Tyle’s Program Model
The Taylorian curriculum model emerged as a result of his “eight-year study,” based on a progressive education model. and had been very influential in his teaching and research work throughout his career.
Based on his model, Ralph W. Tyler for many years studied the curricula of different educational centers, making a prediction about the future success that each student might have during their college cycle at the university on its relation to the curricular competences during their stage in secondary school. education.
After concluding his study on the curriculum model devoted himself to finding the guidelines that each student should follow, according to their own abilities, in order to achieve a good academic career during his time as a high school student. As a result of this research and the conclusions he developed, in 1949 he published a book entitled “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Teaching”.
According to Tyler’s research, to choose the most appropriate curriculum model for each high school, you must first answer the following four questions:
- What educational goals does the school aim to achieve for its students?
- What teaching method will students need to achieve their goals?
- What educational resources will the school use to help students?
- How to assess whether students have achieved their goals?
Also, Tyler considered this to be a good model for a program education should cover three basic needs, as we will briefly explain below.
First, a good curriculum model should cover the learning needs that each student has, based on their own interests, personal development and ability to learn.
Second, a well-used program model should focus on teach students according to the values and needs of the society in which they live, as well as the principles that drive them.
Third, a properly implemented curriculum model should teach students a range of knowledge that can then be applicable. In other words, it aims to give the students a type of information which can then be applied, giving a similar importance to the practical part of the subjects as to the theoretical part, which facilitates a consolidation of the acquired knowledge.
In this way, a good curriculum model would be one that could adequately answer the above four questions, and which also takes into account these three basic needs.
- Xai, G. and García, JM (2004). The Tilerian curriculum model and the reconceptualists. Interview with Ralph W. Tyler (1902-1994). Electronic Journal of Educational Research, 6 (2), pp. 2-18.
- Morelli, S. (2005). Program, technique and schooling. Allies of the educational journey. The intrigue of the communication, 10, pp. 1-9.
- University of Chicago Library (2008). Ralph W. Tyler’s Documentary Guide 1932-1988. University of Chicago Library.