Schizophrenia is the mental disorder in which the various examples of thought psychopathology are most often given, so they are strongly associated with each other. These psychopathologies can also occur in depressive and bipolar disorders.
Detecting this type of mental disorder is not easy in many cases, being the best way to assess the psychopathology of thought in patients is through their speech, because when such a case occurs it is d ‘have a conversation with the subject when a disorganization of thought can be appreciated and, this disorganization can be presented in several ways.
In this article some examples of the psychopathology of thought will be briefly explained, classified into different categories.
Examples of psychopathology of thought
First, it is important to distinguish between formal psychopathologies, of the structure or course of thought, and psychopathologies of the content of thought. We will start by talking about the first category.
1. Examples of psychopathologies of the course of thought
It is a group of psychopathological disorders of thought related to reasoning, which are based on the limitations of logical reasoning and problem solving, being explained as disorganized thinking.
It is also common for these types of disorders to be related to speech disorders, characterized by disorganized speech. That is why it is important to pay attention to how this person expresses himself through language.
Below we will see the most common examples that can be found in this category.
This psychopathology of thought, also called “loss of associations” or “flight of ideas”, consists of a way to communicate verbally through mixed ideas, so there is no cohesion in what is said, although each sentence separately is well constructed, but saying them in the same speech, they do not agree with each other.
1.2. Speech pressure
Also called “realization”, it is a psychopathology which causes the subject to start speaking spontaneous sentences non-stop and at high speed, so it is not easy to intervene in the conversation. A new sentence may start before you finish saying the previous one.
1.3. Inconsistency, schizophrenia or word salad
It is a way of speaking using sentences without the correct syntax because you put words together at random, so it is difficult to understand what you are saying.
1.4. Loss of goal
In this psychopathology of thought, the subject tries to explain something, starting to talk about a certain subject and, in the middle of the speech, he changes the subject without finishing his previous explanation, he therefore fails to conclude.
This happens when the subject starts talking about a specific subject and it ends with a conclusion that has no logical connection with the previous topic.
This happens when asking the patient about a particular topic, he responds with oblique answers that have little or no relevance to the question.
Throughout a conversation the person repeats words or ideas repeatedly, so that, without looking back, he expresses them again.
1.8. He talks distractedly
It is a divergent discourse where the person he suddenly changes the subject or interrupts his speech in the face of any environmental stimulus.
It is a psychopathology of thought in which the patient, when he hears something about a particular subject, he gives too many details which may even be irrelevant to this question.
The patient’s speech consists of words that are phonetically associated (rhymes), instead of putting words in their sentences that give meaning to what they intend to explain, being able to express a speech that is difficult to understand.
Word approximation, metonymy or paraphrase It is the use of words in a way that is not conventional or pseudo-words are created but following the rules of the language to form words, and it is a very rare disorder. .
The subject gives a different meaning to words or even non-existent words are invented. It is also a disorder that occurs very rarely.
In this case, the subject repeat as echo words or sentences just uttered by the person speaking there.
It’s the tendency of the patient to report things about which he is talking to the person, although these are issues that have nothing to do with it or are just neutral.
1.14. Affected speech, emphatic speech or choice
The patient tends to use overly cultured, pedantic or pompous language, being in some cases out of context, so they are not appropriate at this precise moment.
1.15. Poor speech or laconicism
The patient hardly speaks spontaneously and when asked, tends to respond monosyllabically or very briefly.
1.16. Poor content of spoken language or thought
It can also be called “empty speech”. In these cases, the subject takes longer than usual to answer a question and, in addition, he responds with an unfinished speech that conveys very little information.
In some cases, you may be able to respond with the correct information, but for this reason you are exceeding the number of words you are using too much, when it is most normal to be able to explain it more briefly and concisely.
This happens when the subject suddenly stops speaking while I was expressing something, so I couldn’t finish and even he may even forget the subject he was talking about.
2. Examples of psychopathologies of the content of thought
These are thought psychopathologies that can be detected through the content of the words they express from their thoughts and ideas; that is why it is necessary to pay attention to what are the beliefs and thoughts that underlie their speech.
We will see below some examples of disorders related to the content of the thought.
2.1. Repeated negative thoughts
It’s about boring thoughts, which appear frequently, are difficult to control and are negative in nature. In addition, these types of thoughts are not helpful in solving problems, and can be exhausting as they consume a lot of attention from the subject suffering from it, so they negatively interfere with daily activities.
Such thoughts can be felt by people without any psychopathology, but with a lower frequency and are also more controllable in these cases.
2.2. Overdone ideas
In this case, they are beliefs that dominate the ordinary course of an individual’s thought, as well as according to their values and personality, which are emotionally overwhelmed and therefore often burden the individual with worries so that he may come to dominate his life.
These ideas are considered a psychopathology of thought because they dominate the usual thought flow of the individual. However, it should be noted that they are not easy to detect because the content of these ideas is generally socially correct and these people tend to behave according to their way of thinking, even if it bothers them because they always worry about meeting high expectations.
2.3. Automatic ideation
This thought psychopathology consists of repetitive thoughts about how the subject might cause physical injury or injury, even to the point of having suicidal thoughts. These ideas are constantly changing because they are associated with negative states experienced by the subject. sometimes, such as sadness, anger, guilt, etc.
When faced with such ideas, special attention should be paid, even if the subject has not attempted suicide or even thought about how to achieve it. With what you expressed the fact that you have ideas of this nature, it is necessary to spatially assess this case and immediately provide the subject with the necessary psychological help.
2 .. Dysfunctional beliefs
Having distorted or dysfunctional beliefs is a psychopathology of thought that it is based on assessments or assumptions that the patient assumes to be entirely true, so that they create biases when processing new information of a negative and unproductive nature.