Thinking and constructing a more or less elaborate speech may seem simple, because it is something that is done continuously. However, it is a complex and laborious process that involves a large number of mental sub-processes and intermediate steps.
A large majority of the population succeeds in carrying out these processes and structure a coherent and cohesive internal discourse who is able to express and transmit to others through rich and elaborate language.
However, there are many people who are unable to make a logical and understandable speech. This happens in cases where it comes into play a psychological phenomenon called allergy. Why is this happening?
What is the analogy?
The alogia is alteration of the form and content of thought and language in the form of impoverishment, an impoverishment observable in oral discourse.
While it is observed in the tongue, the main alteration in people with allergies is in thinking. It turns out to be illogical and uncoordinated, slowed down and with serious difficulties of abstraction. Different ideas are difficult to develop and manage, which takes longer to respond to external stimulation.
Despite the large number of aspects it incorporates, the allergy it is not considered as a disorder in itself but as a symptom of another pathology or alteration, As for example with abulia.
The most visible symptoms are the presence of a decrease in the flow of thought, Uninformative speech content and reduced level of spontaneity.
The allergic person has poor fluidity, Speaking through brief communications and even from monosyllables. Speech ceases to be spontaneous and attempts to communicate with the environment are reduced, being more reactive. When it does, communication tends to be very specific, repetitive, and with little reflected content and information. It is also common for blockages and interruptions to appear in both speech and thought, losing their direction. For this reason, there are generally derailments, loss of association between the different components of speech.
Another relevant aspect is the difficulty of capturing metaphors and symbolic language, With which the person tends to understand and use only the literal meaning of the terms.
For all that that implies, the allergy this implies a high level of alteration in the patient’s life. Social interaction is severely hampered, which leads to serious difficulties in family and social life. There is also a great effect in the workplace, as well as in other areas of the individual’s life.
Causes of allergy
Allergy is a symptom linked to logic, the ability to bind thought, inhibit and manage it consciously. The causes of this alteration are linked to a dysfunction of dopamine synthesis in specific areas of the brain, in particular the mesocortical pathway. The regions that are part of this pathway do not receive enough of this substance, which causes both allergies and other negative symptoms.
Apart from that it can also occur due to the presence of injuries in this path, In the connection of the frontal lobe with the basal ganglia or by different types of damage to the temporal lobe, especially in the region of Wernicke and other areas related to the tongue.
Disorders in which it appears
Allergy or poverty of thought it is particularly noticeable in schizophrenia, Presenting as a negative symptom. In fact, this is one of the main negative symptoms of this disorder. This implies that this implies a severe reduction in the subject’s basic abilities.
In addition to schizophrenia, an allergy can appear in other types of disorders. For example, it is common in people with dementia. It is also not uncommon for it to appear in other types of pathologies, especially when they have psychotic characteristics.
Finally, allergic-type manifestations have sometimes been described. as an adverse reaction to certain medications or substances that lower the level of dopamine in the brain. A classic example is that of classic antipsychotics, which work by non-selectively reducing dopamine levels. While this is useful on some nerve pathways to reduce positive symptoms in others, it can embarrass and worsen, or even generate, negative symptoms such as an allergy.
Treating these types of symptoms can be complex to achieve, but more and more progress is being made in this regard. As in many other cases, how to treat a symptom such as an allergy will largely depend on its etiology (causes).
Since it is particularly linked to schizophrenia, pharmacologically, atypical antipsychotics are generally used, Which generate an increase in dopamine at the mesocortical level by acting as serotonin antagonists in different nuclei of the brain (which in turn inhibits dopamine synthesis, so that an inhibitor would be inhibited).
The use of amphetamine derivatives it also appears to generate positive results when the aspect to be treated is only the presence of an allergy, although more research is needed in this regard. This consideration should not be taken into account in the case of schizophrenia, as increased activation could lead to psychotic flare-ups and positive symptoms.
At the psychological level the use of different types of therapy is recommended depending on the origin of these symptoms. Whatever specific programs are used, in general, psychosocial rehabilitation and psychoeducation are useful both for the individual and for the environment in order to have tools and guidelines for action. Training in social skills and problem solving can also help.
American Psychiatric Association (2002). DSM-IV-TR. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Spanish edition. Barcelona: Masson. (Original in English from 2000).
Desai, N., Gangadhar, BN, Pradhan, N. and Channabasavanna, SM (1984). Treatment of negative schizophrenia with d-amphetamine. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 723-724.
Sants, JL (2012). Psychopathology. CEDE PIR preparation manual, 01. CEDE. Madrid.