Allocheria is a neurological disorder in which patients respond to stimuli coming from one side of their body as if they had occurred on the opposite side. A disorder in which visoperceptive and attentional alterations occur, produces injuries in the parietal lobe of the brain.
In this article, we explain in more detail what this disorder is, what are its possible causes, what types of aloe vera exist and what treatment is indicated.
What is aloqueia?
Allochthyosis is a neurological disease, described at the end of the 19th century by the Austrian neurologist Heinrich Obersteiner, who causes spatial transpositions in the patient; that is, stimuli presented to it on one side of the body (or space) perceive them as if presented on the opposite side.
For example, if the person touches their right shoulder, they will have the sensation that their left shoulder has been touched (somatosensory madness, when touch function is affected). In cases where auditory or visual function is affected, patients report hearing sounds or voices on the side opposite to what was actually presented to them; and with regard to the images or objects perceived, the affected people tell the same thing, perceiving them from the side opposite to the one presented.
Speech has also been seen as another sign of heminegligence, an attention disorder characterized by the inability to orient and respond to stimuli or objects located in one of the halves of space. (usually halfway opposite to the damaged cerebral hemisphere). The person would present an “indifference” to everything that happens to him on the left (or right) side of his reality..
In the vast majority of disorders in which alocytosis occurs, such as neglect syndromes or unilateral inattention syndrome, there is usually damage to the right parietal lobe.
Possible causes of this disorder
There are several theories that would explain why a disorder like insanity occurs. But the most common and widely accepted explanation is Hammond’s theory, Which indicates that there is an almost complete crossing or decussation of sensory fibers within the cerebral gray matter.
This theory concludes that if an injury occurs on one of the posterior sides, it can reach the center of the corresponding cerebral hemisphere and therefore the sensation is returned by this hemisphere to the opposite side of the body.
Likewise, if another unilateral injury overlaps at a different level than the first, the feeling that previously deviated in the wrong hemisphere could now be redirected to another obstacle, and so it could come to the right hemisphere. aloquiria the same would happen with unilateral and bilateral injuries, provided they are asymmetric.
Another theory that would explain the causes of this neurological disorder is that of Huber, who postulates that the appearance of a new lesion on the opposite side redirects the impulse to its original destination.
Let’s see below how many types of rent there are and what each one consists of.
The electromotive motor alkyd occurs when there is a crossing of reflexes in muscle stimulation and has been observed on the face, lower limbs and upper limbs.
For example, when a stimulus is presented from the affected side, contraction of the opposing facial muscles occurs, using a current so weak that even the healthy part of the face does not respond. There have also been cases in which putting pressure on one forearm causes movement to the opposite forearm.
The fact is that an electrical stimulus may manifest its effects in an area far from the nervous system, And this area can be on the same side of the body or on the opposite side, although it is generally more common to be on the opposite side because the representation of the contralateral ends of the spinal cord is closer to each other. than the ipsilateral limbs (from the same half of the body).
1. Engine rental
In this type of rental, if the patient is asked to perform a movement with the affected side of the body, he does so with the corresponding part on the opposite side and he has the impression (or the certainty for him) that he executed it correctly.
2. Aloquiria reflects
People who suffer from reflex aloqueia respond to stimulation, for example, of the sole of the foot or the inner part of the thigh, evoking the corresponding reflection only on the opposite side.
3. Auditory speech
In cases of auditory alkyria, several investigations have been carried out and the observations made have recorded that by holding a tuning fork next to one of the ears, the patient responds with a number of symptoms, including pain and deafness, In the opposite ear.
4. Visual alîtreia
In visual language, the patient perceives objects located on one side of the visual field on the contralateral side. In one of the studies performed, the patient who received visual stimulation through the right eye regularly reported that it was his left eye that was stimulated (even though it remained closed).
In another study, one of the patients was shown with a colored object in front of his left eye, and the patient always maintained that the color was seen with his right eye.
5. Taste the aloquiria
In the case of taste alkyries, the research carried out consisted in placing the patients, on one side of their tongue, a specific substance, with the expected result that they all reported that they tasted the same with the opposite side of their tongue.
Additionally, when a piece of their tongue was palpated on one side, they also reported that they had been touched from the side opposite to what it really stood for.
Although there is no validated and effective treatment today, this type of neurological disorder, such as aloe vera, which affects attention span and visual skills, is often treated by the establishment of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program. This intervention will depend on the etiology of the brain injury, the phase in which the patient is, as well as other variables and other types of deficits that may accompany the disorder.
Non-specific interventions can be performed, in which the attentional function is treated as a unitary concept, working on aspects such as simple or complex reaction time, Stroop-type tasks, etc. or more specific interventions focused on the rehabilitation of certain attentional components, such as selective care or arousal.
In case of neglect or heminegligence syndromeAccompanied by aloqueia, techniques have been used such as the adaptation of prisms, which improves the lateralized reorganization of visuomotor mapping, facilitating perceptual changes in the patient; optokinetic stimulation, which induces changes in the patient’s attentional system by stimuli that capture his attention and redirect it to the contralesional side; or behavioral techniques, such as positive reinforcement and reward, which exert great influence and modulate the patient’s attentional processes.
On the other hand, in recent years, they are increasingly used interventions in which technologies such as virtual reality or cognitive training software are used. Several studies have shown that these techniques can be useful in improving alertness performance and attentional aspects of patients.
- Arnedo, M, Bembibre, J. and Triviño, M. (2013). Neuropsychology through clinical cases. Madrid: Editorial Mèdica Panamericana.
- Halligan PW, Marshall JC, Wade DT. From left to right – Allochiria in case of left visuospatial abandonment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992; 55: 717-9