Brain effusion: definition, causes, symptoms and treatment

Stroke is known by many other names: stroke, stroke, stroke, or heart attack.; and is feared by anyone, regardless of how they are labeled.

The cause of this fear is that the effects of a stroke can be fatal for the person, ranging from the onset of any type of disability to death. To give you an idea, stroke is the third leading cause of death in the western world.

That is why it is extremely important to know what they consist of and what are their first symptoms, in order to avoid any major harm to the person.

    What is a stroke? definition

    A stroke consists of interruption of blood flow to the brain due to a blocked or broken blood vessel. This suspension of the blood supply to the brain causes neurons to not receive enough oxygen and start to die.

    If we consider that the brain is responsible for the functioning of everything that a person does: walking, thinking, speaking, moving and even breathing, this can lead to a kind of handicap; resulting in permanent brain damage or even death if such a stroke is not detected in time.

    Two types of stroke can be differentiated:

    1. Ischemic effusion

    Due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial vessels that inject blood into the brain preventing its passage. Other times, this pause in blood flow is caused by a blood clot that is larger than usual.

    2. Hemorrhagic spill

    In this type of stroke rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, and the resulting bloodshed, causes intracranial hemorrhage which can also affect the membranes surrounding the brain and meninges.

    Causes and risk factors

    There are three main reasons for stroke:

    1. Clogged arteries due to a clot or hardening: Prone to people with arteriosclerosis, diabetes, high cholesterol or hypertension.

    2. Obstruction due to cerebral embolism: in this type of accident a blood clotBelonging to any area of ​​the body, passes through it until it meets a narrow artery where it gets stuck.

    3. Intracranial hemorrhage caused by rupture, Rupture due to hardening or congestion of the blood vessels, also called aneurysm, or hypertension.

    While many of these causes are associated with various stroke risk diseases, there are risk factors, some of which can be avoided, so that a seemingly healthy person can suffer from any. type of stroke.

    Unalterable risk factors

    These risk factors are impossible for the person to control or change. These are:

    • genetic: If there is a family history of stroke, this person may be more likely to have it.
    • age: Older people are more likely to have a stroke.
    • Sex: Men are generally more likely than women to have one of these strokes.
    • Born with a more fragile heart than usual or if your heart rate is altered.
    • First months after pregnancy: Women who have just given birth may be more likely to have a miscarriage after the first few months.

    Controllable risk factors

    However, there are other elements which also influence during a cardiovascular incident but which can be modified or controlled:

    • Physical inactivity: exercising regularly decreases the likelihood of a spill
    • High cholesterol: the risk of having a stroke increases when the blood cholesterol level exceeds 240 mg / dl
    • obesity
    • Anxiety or stress
    • the tobacco


    Notoriety and fear of strokes come, in addition to the consequences that it can have, because in many cases the symptoms appear suddenly, leading the person not to perceive any of them and therefore not to give. stroke.

    Symptoms that usually warn of a spill son:

    • Severe headache with no apparent cause
    • Confusion and speech difficulties
    • Loss of vision in one or both eyes
    • Numbness or weakness of the face, arms and legs (especially on one side of the body)
    • Dizziness, vertigo, and loss of balance or coordination

    FAST brain drain test

    However, there is a protocol for the early detection of a stroke. This protocol called FAST (Face, Arms, Speech, Time) is essential to the ability to detect a spill and save lives, being just the appearance of one of them causing the alarm.

    The test consists of observing a series of milestones:

    1. Path: If the person can only move one side of the face, this is a sign of a spill. To do this, we ask the person to smile and observe whether the two sides are equal or not.

    2. Arms: The person is asked to raise their arms, in the case of only being able to lift one, or to feel difficulties in the other, this is another sign.

    3. Speak: Asking the person to say their first and last name, address or just repeat a sentence, if they don’t coordinate the words or do it very slowly, is considered a sign of spillage.

    4. timeWhether you encounter all three signs or only one, it is essential to contact the emergency services to intervene as quickly as possible, because after the first hour after the onset of symptoms, the damage can be irreversible.


    For a correct diagnosis of stroke it is necessary both to identify what type of spill it is and to determine its location and cause.

    As the first step in identifying the type of spill, clinicians may use computed tomography (CT) of the head or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging.

    Below are different tests and techniques to get the rest of the spill information. For example:

    • Blood test
    • Electrocardiograms (ECG)
    • cerebral angiography
    • Carotid ultrasound or Doppler ultrasound.


    As mentioned above, a stroke requires emergency treatment, which can reduce the likelihood of disability and even save the patient’s life.

    The choice of treatment will depend on the type of stroke, but in both cases, the priority is to restore blood flow in the case of ischemic stroke and to reduce blood pressure in the case of ischemic stroke. hemorrhage.

    In case the cause of the spill is a blood clot, and this is detected during the first few hours after the start of the spill, the patient is given a clot reducing medicine, which will dilute the blood clot and increase the blood clot. blood flow to the affected area.

    In addition to this emergency treatment, there are two other types of treatment to contain the effects of strokes:

    1. Intracranial vascular systems

    Endovascular interventions are used to increase blood flow to the veins and arteries in the brain. This treatment involves inserting a catheter along the blood vessels to the brain. Once there, the catheter can leave different elements:

    • Medicines to dissolve the blood mass
    • Suction systems or eliminators factories
    • Balls and stents, used to keep glasses open
    • Aneurysm that repairs metal coils

    2. Surgery

    Using surgery, the healthcare professional can stir the blood that has spilled around the brain and repair broken blood vessels.

    After a stroke, most people need rehabilitation to regain functions that may have been affected by the spill. As well as patient rehabilitation to eliminate risk factors that may facilitate the onset of a second spill.

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