Bipolar disorder (TB), also known as manic depressive illness, occurs not only in adults, but also in children and adolescents.; however, it usually goes undiagnosed and is sometimes mistaken for ADHD, as children are often very finicky and difficult to manage.
With this psychological alteration easily occurs irritation, as well as a tendency to be more excited than other children. But there are also ups and downs: it is easy to move from sadness to joy, whether at school or at home.
Bipolar disorder in boys and girls
Symptoms of bipolar disorder cause unusual changes in a person’s mood, activity levels, and day-to-day functioning.. Bipolar disorder causes people to experience extreme changes in mood and behavior. Boys and girls who develop it sometimes feel very happy and with a lot of energy (this is called a manic episode) and other times children with bipolar disorder feel very sad and with low energy (this is called depressive episodes).
These mood swings are not like kids who just tend to have their ups and downs. In children with bipolar disorder, emotions are more extreme and are neither caused nor justified by specific elements of the environment, and are accompanied by changes in sleep, energy levels and the ability to think clearly. . Bipolar symptoms make it difficult for young people to exercise well in school.
Bipolar disorder is sometimes misdiagnosed or mistaken for other disorders that may have similar symptoms. It is often diagnosed as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Anxiety Disorders, Behavior Disorder, and Difficult Negativist Disorder.
In both boys and girls it is diagnosed as early-onset bipolar disorderSomething that mainly occurs in older children and adolescents. This disorder is not very common in children but occurs in this age group. It appears most often in adolescents in the middle of adolescence.
The exact causes of bipolar disorder are still unknown. However, there are factors that contribute to the development of the disease, such as hereditary factors, as well as a lack of serotonin and norepinephrine.
Neurotransmitters play a very important role in regulating emotions. In manic phases dopamine is activated and in depression it lacks serotonin. There are many genes involved according to studies, but there is not a single gene that is the cause.
While it is known that bipolar disorder is more likely to develop if a family member has it, it is also important to note that environmental factors, trauma and stressful life events can increase the risk. to develop bipolar disorder if there is a getotype that favors it. It is important to know that the hereditary factor plays an important role in its development; if one of the parents has this disorder, the risk of suffering is 50%.
On the other hand, a risk factor causing relapses is stopping taking the medications correctly prescribed by your psychiatrist and following your instructions. Another risk factor is alcohol or drug use. Also, going to bed for less than 8 hours can be an indicator that you are entering the manic phase.
Gender differences and prevalence of bipolar disorder
Studies in clinical populations show that bipolar disorder occurs in children as well as adolescents and adults, and is as common in men as in women. Bipolar type II disorder and adolescent bipolar disorder are more common in women.
The World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that bipolar disorder is the 6th cause of disability in the world, and recognized as a public health problem with a negative impact affecting family and social relationships, promoting poor school performance and professional.
According to several studies, bipolar disorder becomes evident after several years since in most cases it starts with a depressive disorder and in children with ADHD. However, 69% of people are diagnosed other than tuberculosis. In such cases, it can take years for a bipolar disorder to be detected, and so it is often more complicated because the disorder was not detected in time and suicide attempts or complete suicides occur during this period.
What to do?
Recommendations for bipolar disorder are to be attentive to moods in children and, in the face of warning signs, to consult a specialist, either a psychiatrist or a psychologist.
Parents need to be vigilant about mood swings and stressors. The treatment of children is similar to that of adults and is based on psychological therapy and consultation with their psychiatrist. Adults and children are usually treated with mood stabilizers.
The strategies applied to the therapy of patients with bipolar disorder are psychoeducation, family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological therapy.