Concussion: symptoms, causes, treatment and diagnosis

The cranial structure, although it is quite protected, is extremely sensitive to any injury or accident that ends up causing serious damage or discomfort to the sufferer.

One of these accidents is known as a concussionThis, although in most cases does not cause major damage, if the person does not rest and take care of their health can result in multiple concussions or a second impact syndrome.

    What is a concussion?

    By concussion is meant the most common and mild type of traumatic brain injury. On a more technical level, the term refers to a small loss of consciousness that does not last long over time and can occur. after receiving a shock to the head, following an injury or after movement in which the head and brain move very quickly from back to front.

    Although a concussion is not usually fatal, it is usually it can cause a number of symptoms of considerable importance, Which must be dealt with as soon as possible.

    In addition, this type of trauma can cause neuronal damage without the need to cause apparent structural damage. After such a stroke, the brain is temporarily blocked, being able to present / display loss of consciousness, confusion or memory alterations.

    The fact that this is one of the most common strokes is due to the ease with which it can happen, as any fall, car crash, or any sport or daily activity that involves a lot of movement makes the person vulnerable to concussion.

      Symptoms of concussion

      The symptoms associated with a concussion vary depending on the person who suffers and the severity of the injury. For example, although loss of consciousness is a very common symptom of concussion, not all people who have it die.

      Likewise, the person may experience the following symptoms both immediately and after a few hours, or even days and weeks, after the accident.

      Symptoms of concussion can be classified into three types: Mild concussion symptoms, severe symptoms and symptoms appearing during the recovery process.

      1. Mild symptoms

      These are the most common symptoms after a concussion, although irritating, usually don’t cause major problems.

      • Short-term death or loss of consciousness.
      • Memory alterations.
      • Confusion or disorientation.
      • Feeling asleep.
      • Dizziness.
      • Vision problems.
      • Headache.

      • Nausea or vomiting.
      • Photophobia or poor light tolerance.

      • Lack of balance.
      • Slow reaction time.

      2. Severe symptoms

      If the person has any of the following symptoms, see a doctor urgently, as these are signs of a more severe concussion. These symptoms are:

      • Altered mental lucidity and consciousness.
      • Constant feeling of confusion.
      • Epileptic attacks.

      • muscular weakness.
      • Changes in the size of the pupil.
      • Strange eye movements.
      • Frequent vomiting.
      • Difficulty walking or maintain balance.
      • Prolonged loss of consciousness or coma.

      3. Symptoms during recovery

      Finally, it is common for a person to have a number of symptoms resulting from the effects of their concussion. they occur during the recovery period.

      • Irritability or mood swings.
      • Hypersensitivity to light or noise.
      • Concentration problems.
      • Mild headaches.

      Causes and risk factors

      As mentioned above, concussion can be the result of a blow or a fall in any setting or carry out any activity or accident in any type of vehicle.

      Considerable movement of the brain in any direction or orientation can cause loss of consciousness for the person. Depending on the duration of this loss of consciousness, the severity of the concussion will be greater or lesser.

      However, a commotion it doesn’t always lead to deathThere are people who experience impaired visual perception that causes them to see anything black or white. Likewise, a person may have a mild concussion and not be aware of it because it has no symptoms or, if it does, is so mild that it is not associated with it.

      Likewise, there are a number of risk factors that increase the likelihood of a person having a concussion. These factors are:

      • To be a man.
      • Children under 5 years old.
      • People aged 15 to 24.
      • People over 75 years old.
      • Carry out contact sports activities.
      • Trades related to construction or agriculture.
      • Driving or traveling in a vehicle at high speed.
      • Alcohol consumption.
      • Insomnia.

      • some drugs that induce or cause drowsiness.


      When diagnosing a possible concussion, medical staff should conduct a pre-diagnostic interview during which they obtain information about the type of injury and symptoms experienced by the patient.

      Then, a physical exam is needed to check the condition of the nervous system. This exploration includes reflex assessment, variations in pupil size, coordination and mental clarity.

      Finally and depending on the severity of the patient, they will be carried out a series of diagnostic tests and examinations. These tests include:

      • Computed tomography (CT).
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (IMR).
      • Electroencephalogram (EEG) in cases where seizures persist.


      The treatment of choice after suffering a concussion it will depend on the severity and extent of the symptoms.

      If the person has bleeding, inflammation, or severe brain damage, surgery may be necessary. However, this usually does not happen often.

      Pain relievers are usually prescribed medications in most cases, because the person only tends to have a series of somewhat troublesome headaches. The usual recommendations after a concussion are:

      • rest.
      • Observation of the affected person to detect possible complications.
      • Do not do any sport or strenuous physical activity for the next 24 hours.
      • Do not drive any type of motor or non-motorized vehicle after 24 hours.
      • Avoid alcoholic drinks.


      Full recovery from a concussion can take a long time, days, weeks or months. Problems or symptoms that appear during recovery tend to last for a short time, but the person may need the help or cooperation of other people to perform certain daily activities.

      however, the person may have a multiple concussion while the first agitation develops.

      Multiple concussion

      After suffering a first concussion, and if the instructions of medical personnel are not followed or if a sport or physical activity is played, the person is likely to suffer a second concussion.

      This multiple concussion can cause a condition known as second impact syndrome (SSI). Unlike a common concussion, second impact syndrome increases the chances of suffering from significant inflation in the brain, which carries a risk of death.

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