Logoclonus: symptoms, causes and treatment

From psychology, communication is understood as an essential tool for knowing others, understanding the world and expressing our thoughts. Verbal language is the primary means of communication (but not the only one). Therefore, when it presents some kind of alteration, the life of the person may be affected.

Logoclonía is an alteration of the language in which the half syllable or the end of the words is repeated. It is associated with certain pathologies such as Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson’s disease or Kluver-Bucy syndrome. In this article we will know in detail.

    Logoclonía: characteristics

    The logoclonía is spasmodic, compulsive, multiple repetition of a syllable in the middle or end of a word (For example: “I want to go to the supermarket, do, do, do.”). Sometimes it can also include words directly (“on Saturday I go to the movies, to the movies, to the movies, do you want to come?”).

    Logoclonus manifests itself by the patient in a completely involuntary and dystonic way (dystonia involves sustained muscle contractions in one or more parts of the body).

    consists of an alteration of verbal (oral) language, and indicates an organicity (Organic origin of a disease), as well as other alterations such as palilalia. It is often associated with Alzheimer’s dementia, among others.

    Verbal language

    Verbal language is the primary means of human communication and the primary resource in teaching-learning processes. It allows us to communicate with others, exchange information, express what we think, want, think, etc.

    In short, it is a tool that enables and improves social relations, although it is not the only type of language in communication (Non-verbal language is also essential and complements verbal language).

    In psychology, verbal language is explored during a clinical interview, through observation and detailed analysis of what the patient spontaneously communicates and his oral responses to the psychologist’s questions. / AT.

    To assess verbal language disorders, different aspects of the patient’s verbal expression will be analyzed (Tone, intensity, vocalization, coherence …). In the case of logoclonia, it is easy to verify, when the patient repeats in his speech the syllables in the middle or at the end of the words.

    Symptoms such as speech disorders

    The fact that alterations or disorders appear in verbal language has a series of consequences in the life of the person who suffers from them, at the relational, personal, professional level, etc. Psychologically, the person may be affected, And end up avoiding embarrassing social situations or conversations, for example. This is especially seen in dysphamia (stuttering).

    Logoclonus is one of those disorders that we mention, and can cause suffering or discomfort in the patient, although depending on the pathology associated with logoclonus (eg: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, …), its significance for the person and / or the interferences in your life will be different (also depending on your awareness of the disease or the degree of contact with reality, for example).

    Thus, logoclonía is part of the disorders of the language of speech, specifically of the group of iterative disorders or verbal stereotypes. This group of disorders involves the frequent and abnormal repetition of a syllable, word or phrase. In the case of logoclonia, we are syllables and words.

    In addition, logoclonus is a language disorder that affects its rhythm and course.

    Causes and associated pathologies

    the logo it manifests in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia and other conditions, Especially in pseudobulbar and senile dementias. It can also appear in Kluver Bucy’s syndrome, a behavioral disorder caused by involvement of the bilateral temporal lobes.

      pseudobulbar conditions

      As we have seen, one of the pathologies in which logoclonus appears is pseudobulbar involvement. Pseudobulbar effect (BSA), also called emotional lability, is a condition characterized by the presence of exaggerated or inappropriate emotional expression in relation to the context and which usually takes place with episodes of laughter and crying.

      this box is associated with neurological disorders involving brain damage, Such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

      Example

      An example of logoclonía would be the following sentence: “when I walk, I will always wander, I walk, all words have a path, therefore I want to continue walking, path”.

      In this case, two syllables of the same word / “an” / – / “do” / are repeated.

      Other language changes

      Logoclonus, as we have seen, is a speech language disorder that is part of the group of iterative disorders or verbal stereotypes. In addition, in this group other changes are included, such as:

      1. Ecolalia

      consists of the involuntary repetition of a word or phrase that has just been heard or just spoken. This frequently occurs in autism spectrum disorders).

      2. Palilalia

      Similar to logoclonia, although not exactly the same. It consists of the involuntary, spontaneous and monotonous repetition of the same sentence, word or syllable.

      3. Verbigeration

      It is the automatic broadcast of whole words or sentences, inconsistent and without continuity. It’s common in dementia.

      4. Coprolalia

      This is the pathological tendency to absolute obscenities (It is common in Tourette’s disorder). This tendency circumscribes all words and expressions considered culturally “taboo” or inappropriate in the social sphere.

      treatment

      In addition to psychological therapy, treatment from a medical point of view depends on the type of brain damage behind the logoclonus.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Belloch, A. et al. (1995). Manual of psychopathology. Volume I, Madrid, McGraw-Hill.
      • Etcheverry, JL (2015). Use of dextromethorphan / quinidine in adults with pseudobulbar disease. Ibero-American Society for Scientific Information, 75 (1), 83-90.
      • Training and employment, UGT Andalusia. (2011). Specialized care for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Module 2: Alzheimer’s dementia: neurological and cognitive aspects.
      • Quiroga, F. (2013). Psychiatric disorders common in neurological diseases. Colombian Neurological Guides from the Colombian Neurological Association.

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