Millon’s multiaxial clinical inventory: how it works and what’s in it

In psychological assessment, many tests are used and validated to assess both personality disorders and other disease states, such as syndromes or clinical disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, depression, mania, etc.) .

In this article we will know the Millia multiaxial clinical inventory, in particular the MCMI-III, Although we will see how there are also earlier and later versions. This test assesses personality disorders and clinical syndromes.

    Millon multiaxial clinical inventory: what is evaluated?

    The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (Millon MCMI-III) is, as its name suggests, a multi-axis clinical inventory. More precisely, it has two axes: axis I (includes various clinical syndromes of moderate and severe severity) and axis II (includes basic and pathological personality scales). In addition, it also has psychometric scales.

    This is a test for clinical use in adults., Intended to evaluate personality disorders and various clinical syndromes (psychopathology).

    Who was Théodore Millon?

    Theodore Millon, author of the multiaxial clinical inventory, was an American psychologist who pioneered personality research. In addition, he is also the author of over 30 books and 200 articles.

    Millon was the first to use weighted averages, which found that not all factors affected total scores equally. On the other hand, the construction of its tests was carried out by combining rational, empirical and factorial criteria.

    the versions

    Millon inventories have always been coordinated with the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders).

    In addition, Millon’s multiaxial clinical inventory has evolved, so we can find up to 4 versions: MCMI-I (coordinated with DSM-III), MCMI-II (coordinated with DSM-III-R), MCMI-III (coordinated with DSM-IV) and finally MCMI-IV.

    In this article, we will focus on the Millon MCMI-III multiaxial clinical inventory (i.e. the third version), which will be the most well-known and used in recent years.


      Millon’s mutiaxial clinical inventory is intended for adults. it has an administration time of between 20 and 30 minutes and is for individual application. On the other hand, the design of this inventory implies that more importance is given to the most valuable items.

      In addition, T. Millon establishes the concept of the base rate, applied when syndromes are not distributed according to the normal curve; that is, this concept results in the distribution of syndromes and pathologies from epidemiological and theoretical studies.


      As we have seen, Millon’s multiaxial clinical inventory is divided into different components:

      1. Axis I

      this axis includes different clinical syndromes of moderate and severe severity.

      In syndromes of moderate severity, we find:

      • Anxiety.
      • Hysteriform.
      • Hypomania.
      • Dysthymia.
      • Alcohol abuse.
      • Drug abuse.
      • PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder).

      I in severely severe clinical syndromes, There are three:

      • Psychotic thinking.
      • Major depression.
      • Delusional disorder.

      2. Blood II

      Axis II of the multiaxial clinical inventory of Millon includes personality scales, Which in turn are divided into two: basic scales and pathological scales.

      The basic scales include the following personality types:

      • Schizoid.
      • Depressive.
      • Phobia.
      • Seller.
      • Theatrical.
      • Narcissistic.
      • Antisocial.
      • Aggressive-sadistic.
      • Compulsive.
      • Passive aggressive.
      • Self-destructing.

      For their part, the pathological personality scales include the following personalities:

      • Schizotypal.
      • Limit.
      • Paranoid.

      3. Psychometric scales

      The psychometric scales of Millon’s multiaxial clinical inventory are as follows:

      3.1. validity

      Detects mental confusion or extremely negative behaviors, Are responses to extreme trends. It consists of unlikely but not absurd pieces of content (it’s a random response scale).

      3.2. honesty

      value the extent to which patients try to be sincere; it emphasizes sincerity and frankness, reflecting at one end the tendency not to be reserved and at the other the tendency to be reluctant, ambiguous or reserved.

      3.3. desirability

      Detects the desire to make a good impression, wanting to appear as mentally healthy and socially virtuous. This also includes people who deny being unattractive or who deny having any particular problems.

      3.4. alteration

      This scale attempts to detect the tendency to degrade, increase anxiety and exhibit emotional vulnerability by the patient.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Ávila, A. (1997). Assessment in clinical psychology I and II. Ed. Amarú. Salamanca.
      • Buela-Casal, G., Serra, JC (1997). Manual of psychological assessment. 21st century ed. Madrid.
      • Cohen, R., Swerdlik, M. (2002) Psychological Testing and Assessment. McGraw-Hill. Madrid.

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