Post-traumatic stress disorder: causes and symptoms

This short writing aims to explain what the Post-traumatic stress disorder and what are its most common causes and symptoms.

Also, raise awareness of how psychology professionals help refugees in countries that do not offer guarantees for effective psychological treatment.

Post-traumatic stress disorder: a reality in today’s world

Post-traumatic stress disorder (generally called TEPT for short) is a disorder that is classified as an anxiety disorder. He is from a exposure to a situation of extreme anxiety, Such as rape, kidnapping, war, accident, etc.

Post-traumatic stress is not subject to any a priori defined experience, there are a variety of life changing events in each case.

Types of PTSD

According to Azcárate Mengual (2007), they exist 3 types of PTSD:

  • Acute PTSD: Symptoms last less than 3 months.

  • Chronicle of PTSD: Symptoms last 3 months or more.

  • Delayed start of PTSD: Symptoms appear 6 months or more after the traumatic event.

In some cases, PTSD is clearly remembered for traumatic experiences accompanied by high degrees of anxiety (which include fear, anxiety, nervousness, etc.). All of this generates extreme emotional exhaustion in the person, which is usually accompanied by irrational ideas and thoughts.

Diagnosis of PTSD

For a good post-traumatic stress assessment you must first have a thorough knowledge of the factors involved in the genesis and development of the problem. The points to consider and take into account are:

  • The background.

  • Triggers.

  • Maintenance factors.

  • Possible solutions, etc.

a clinical history patient’s complete professional follow-up and family support appropriate will serve a lot in the rehabilitation of the patient.


Each person is a different bio-psycho-social entity, and therefore the treatment of these types of disorders will be very varied, since it is necessary to analyze the emotional and psychological impact of the subject who has experienced such an event and see how it then expands to determine what type of treatment is effective and can help with the emotional and psychological regulation of the person.

Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies have been and are the most widely used in almost all anxiety disorders, as post-traumatic stress disorder is a subtype of it. This technique is one of the most effective and best results.

However, there are specific techniques that are also effective, such as the one already known Desensitization and retreatment by eye movement (O EMDR, Desensitization and retreatment by eye movement). EMDR is based on the assumption that anxiety is due to whether research on the traumatic event remains or has not been processed, which results in blocking cognitions, behaviors, and feelings about the trauma experienced a long time ago.

In cognitive psychotherapies, Rational Emotional Behavioral Therapy, or TREC, is one of the most widely used techniques. TREC advocates a profound philosophical change in the patient, [explicar brevemente en qué consiste cada nueva técnica que se presenta] and has also been characterized based on extensive research on anxiety disorders and the effectiveness of their techniques in these problems.

Pharmacological therapies, as always, are very helpful. These should be prescribed by a psychiatrist indicating the medication, the dose and the length of time the person will stay in this treatment.

Post-traumatic stress disorder in hostile territory

Although many of us do not live in a hostile environment, at any time we can experience a situation that can trigger psychological emotional disturbance, and which will require a mental health professional. However, today, in some countries of the world, a large part of the population suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder caused by war conflicts which have dragged on the region for years.

Among them are Ukraine and Syria, a country that has been hit hard by war and all that has unleashed over time. With peace still far from being reached, many professionals, both medical and mental health, continue to work today to help a panicked population with a high rate of PTSD, around 60% of the Syrian population suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder. and the numbers could reach 85% if the conflict continues.

A group of mental health professionals are responsible for help the most vulnerable part of the population, Like children. The known techniques used by these professionals are projectives. In turn, it is important to highlight how the drawings of Syrian children express the reality and the cruelty in which they live immersed. Their fears, anxieties and fears are also reflected and are in themselves an illustration of the ways PTSD can crystallize through forms of creative expression. These works are supplemented by alternative techniques to psychological techniques, such as dancing, singing, etc. These are part of a therapeutic program that could help hundreds of children improve their emotional well-being.

Bibliographical references:

  • Azcárate Mengual, MA (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder and brain injury. Madrid: Díaz de Santos.

  • Cavall, V. (2010). Behavior modification manual. Guayaquil: University of Guayaquil.

  • International Classification of Diseases, tenth version.

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