The 12 most important brain diseases

In our body, the brain is the king organ. It is a fundamental structure which enables our survival and which regulates and coordinates vital processes such as respiration and heart rate, as fundamental as perception or movement or as complex as reasoning, learning, emotions and feelings. executive skills. The health of this organ is essential for us.

However, multiple conditions can affect and damage it, with serious consequences for survival and adaptation to the environment. In this article we will talk about some of these conditions, brain diseases.

Brain diseases

There are many factors that can alter the morphology and function of the human brain throughout the life cycle. Widely, we can classify brain diseases into different categories, Depending on its cause.

1. Genetic diseases and alterations

Certain disorders and diseases of the brain are caused by genetic factors which modify the functioning and the morphology of this organ. Certain mutations in certain genes they cause the body to function abnormally, in this case affecting the brain in certain ways. This type of brain disease usually manifests itself in the early stages of development, either during fetal development or during an individual’s childhood, although in some cases symptoms can appear in adulthood.

In this sense, we can find alterations such as Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome or alterations in neuronal migration which can end up generating major mental disorders.

Another genetic disorder is found in Huntington’s disease, a genetic and neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of involuntary movements in the form of twists and changes in personality and the progressive loss of executive functions.

2. Metabolic diseases

The existence of metabolic diseases can cause serious damage to the brain if left untreated, by depriving the brain of the elements necessary for its development.

An example of this type of brain disease is found in the phenylketonuria, which is a metabolic disorder which causes the absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which in turn prevents the metabolism of tyrosine from phenylalanine, causing its toxic build-up to the nervous system. Diabetes can also cause brain problems because the brain needs glucose to function properly.

3. Diseases and strokes

Another element that can be affected by various diseases is the network of blood vessels that supply the brain with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to survive. Its dysfunction can lead to the death of more or less large areas of the brain depending on the type of vessels affected and their location, either by anoxia or by asphyxiation caused by spills.

Although they are not actually diseases but rather the result of them, strokes are in fact one of the most common causes of deathLet’s talk about a stroke or a stroke.

Disorders such as angiopathies, the presence of aneurysms or metabolic disorders such as diabetes can cause weakening or excessive stiffness of the vessels, Which can break or cover.

4. Brain diseases caused by infection

The presence of infections in the brain can cause it to stop functioning as it inflames and compresses against the skull, stops receiving the substances it needs to survive, which increases intracranial pressure or that it is affected by harmful substances that impair its function or cause neuronal death.

One of the most well-known disorders is encephalitis or inflammation of the brain, in which it becomes inflamed and has symptoms such as fever, irritability, discomfort, fatigue, weakness, seizures, even death. Another similar problem is meningitis or inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain.

Other than that certain viruses, such as rabies, or the invasion of certain parasites they can also cause serious illness. Other infections that can affect brain function are syphilis or HIV infection.

There are also diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob or prion disease, which results from infection caused by prions or proteins without nucleic acid that cause dementia.

5. Brain tumors

This uncontrolled and expansive growth of tissues in a certain part of the body, which can be benign or malignant and cause a wide variety of symptoms depending on the affected area. But even if we don’t treat cancer, a brain tumor can pose a serious risk to survival because it causes the brain to compress against the skull.

There are a large number of brain tumors depending on the type of cell from which the tumor originates and its degree of malignancy, such as astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, ependymomas or glioblastomas.

7. Neurodegenerative diseases

Many of the above diseases can be resolved with appropriate treatment or cause an alteration which may or may not limit the rest of the patient’s life and progress, maintains specific effects which do not progress to the worst. However, there are several diseases that cause progressive deterioration and neuronal death, with which the individual gradually loses his abilities until his death. These are neurodegenerative diseases.

In this type of disease, the best known are those they are included in all dementiasSuch as Alzheimer’s disease, or the diseases which cause them such as Parkinson’s disease, or Huntington’s disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mentioned above.

Apart from these, other diseases can also be observed, such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although these do not only affect the brain but also also the whole nervous system.

8. Trauma

While traumatic brain injury is not a brain disease in itself, it can be caused with extreme ease both by the consequences of the blow in question and by the counterattack of the opposite part of the brain when it bounces back. against the skull.

Strokes can be generated very easily, as can infections and other types of damage. For example, nerve connections may be severed of the corpus callosum between the two cerebral hemispheres, or diffuse brain damage occurs. Hypersensitivity can also be generated in certain groups of neurons and epilepsy can be generated.

9. Diseases caused by substance use

Other brain diseases can come from the abuse or abstinence of certain substances, Which alter the normal functioning of the brain or destroy neurons in certain parts of the body. This is the case, for example, with alcohol or certain drugs such as cocaine or heroin.

For example. one can observe disorders such as delirium tremens or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (which first begins with an encephalopathy in which the subject has an alteration of consciousness, hallucinations, tremors then passes to Korsakoff syndrome in which the patient presents with retrograde and anterograde amnesia among other cognitive alterations).

Apart from the consumption and addiction to these substances, one can also find other types of disorders such as produced by food poisoning or poisoning for lead.

10. Malformations

The presence of malformations congenital or acquired in the brain or skull they can lead to serious alterations in brain function, especially when they occur during the growth phase by hampering the normative development of the brain.

some notable examples in this type of brain disease are hydrocephalus, anencephaly, microcephaly or Crouzon’s disease.

11. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a disease of the brain that occurs due to an imbalanced functioning of neuronal, hypersensitive and they react abnormally to stimulation.

This causes manifest alterations in the subject such as electoral crises, sudden loss of consciousness, feeling unwell, Memory difficulties, anomias or alterations in executive functions.

This disorder can be caused by a large number of disorders and accidents, such as trauma, encephalitis, stroke, tumors or deformities. However, in some cases, it is not possible to determine the cause of the seizures.

    12. Disconnection syndrome

    Another dangerous brain disorder is disconnection syndrome, in which one part of the brain loses connection with another or others so that nervous information cannot be integrated effectively. One of the best known is callus disconnection syndrome, in which for some reason the corpus callosum experiences some sort of sectioning or pouring out that prevents information from one hemisphere from coordinating and moving towards it. ‘other.

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