The 12 tools to assess dance disorders

Today, a large part of the world’s population lives in a globalized society, which experiences continuous change at a rapid rate, therefore people often have difficulty adapting to them, and with it, cases of anxiety arise. multiply.

Considering the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in the global population, professionals are increasingly demanding for their detection and treatment, they have therefore come to develop a large number of instruments for assessing anxiety disorders as well as specific psychological treatments.

In this article we will talk about the most used tools to assess anxiety disorders, finding some both to measure anxiety as a general construct, as well as to measure several more specific anxiety disorders (eg, phobias, generalized anxiety, etc.).

    The most used tools to assess health problems

    They are the most commonly used anxiety disorder assessment tools in clinical psychology.

    1. State-Scratch Anxiety Questionnaire (STAI)

    The Questionnaire to Measure State Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders developed by Spielberger and colleagues is one of the most widely used tools to assess anxiety disorders, not to mention it is perhaps the most used by professionals.

    Anxiety state is defined as a process of intense emotional activation in the face of a stimulus that the person perceives as dangerous or in anticipation of it., he therefore initiates certain actions in order to anticipate or protect himself, such as acts of flight and the avoidance of the risks he considers to run if he faces the feared situation. In this case, the person feels anxious at a specific point in time and usually calms down when the stimulus they deem dangerous is gone, but they don’t need to be predisposed to feel this way.

    In the case of anxiety shooting, the symptoms experienced by the person are quite similar to those experienced in an anxiety state; however, in this case the person is more likely to feel anxious, may even feel feelings of anxiety and worry without any stimuli in the environment that triggered them. In this case, one could say that when a case of anxiety is detected, it is because the person assessed usually experiences states of stress on a regular basis.

    On the other hand, it should be noted that the STAI anxiety questionnaire consists of two scales of 20 items each; one to measure anxiety state and the other to measure anxiety. In addition, their items are answered on a Likert scale (from 0 to 3) and the scores can range from 20 to 80 points, this score being directly proportional, in ascending order, to the degree of anxiety felt by the person evaluated. .

    It is one of the anxiety disorder assessment tools that can also be used during the assessment process for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Disorders behavior (TCA), among others.

      2. Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI)

      This instrument was developed primarily for the purpose of measuring clinical anxiety or prolonged anxiety state over time. Unlike other anxiety disorder assessment instruments that are also used to assess cases of depression, such as the STAI, the BAI is responsible for measuring anxiety in a more specific way, as its elements have content related to lower depression.

      This anxiety measurement inventory was developed by Aaron Beck and Robert A. Steer, to measure anxiety in a wide variety of clinical patients and the general 13-year-old population. On another side, this inventory is made up of 21 items which must be answered on a Likert-type scale with a score of 0 to 3 points per item, therefore the maximum anxiety score would be 63 points.

      The thresholds in this inventory for measuring anxiety are as follows:

      • Very low anxiety: 0 to 21 points.
      • Moderate anxiety: 22 to 35 points.
      • Severe anxiety: 36 to 63 points.

        Other tools to assess anxiety disorders

        Here are some of the most common instruments used to measure other anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and selective mutism.

        1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Assessment Tools

        These are some of the most commonly used generalized anxiety disorder assessment tools.

        1.1 Questionnaire for the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GADQ-M)

        The Spanish version of this questionnaire, developed by Sandín, consists of 11 items that are used to diagnose generalized anxiety disorder in a short time. It is important to note that its items are mainly focused on information on the characteristics of the assessor’s concerns; although it is based on the DSM-IV criteria, as no new or revised edition has been made.

        1.2 Penn State Concerns Questionnaire (PSWQ)

        This questionnaire contains 16 items that are used to assess pathological and generalized concern, that is, uncontrollable and excessive preoccupation. Its most modern version is number 11 (PSWQ-11).

          2. Instruments for assessing panic disorder

          Below, we will briefly explain some of the anxiety disorder assessment tools that have been developed more specifically for panic and agoraphobia disorders.

          2.1 Agoraphobia (AI) inventory

          The Spanish version of this questionnaire was developed by Echeburúa and his collaborators and consists of 69 items that have been developed to assess the symptoms of agoraphobia.

          This inventory is divided into 2 parts:

          • Part 1: Evaluate avoidance, bodily sensations and associated cognitions.
          • Part 2: Evaluate a number of possible moderating factors for these anxious responses.

          2.2 Panic and Agoraphobia Questionnaire (CPA)

          This questionnaire is composed of 40 items to assess and diagnose panic disorder and agoraphobia, according to the DSM-IV criteria.

          The advantages of this test are as follows:

          • It allows you to detect the severity of panic attacks.
          • It allows the diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia.
          • It is used to detect panic, interoceptive avoidance, and agoraphobia, among others.

          2.3 Short form panic disorder questionnaire (CATP)

          It was developed by Sandín and his collaborators, and revised in 2015. It consists of 14 items that assess three relevant factors of panic disorder through 3 scales:

          • The severity of the panic.
          • Catastrophic interpretations in the face of panic.
          • Self-efficacy of the individual in the face of panic.

          2.4 Child and Adolescent Panic Attack Questionnaire (CAPN)

          This is a 28-item version for assessing and diagnosing panic disorder, being a version developed specifically for children and adolescents.

          3. Instruments for assessing phobias

          In this section, we will look at tools commonly used in the clinical field of psychology to assess phobias.

          3.1 Inventory of school fears (IME)

          It is one of the assessment tools for anxiety disorders, although it is more specific, because it focuses more on the symptoms of anxiety experienced in the face of certain academic fears. There are 3 different versions, each focused on a population group at a given stage of evolutionary development.

          It is used to assess fears related to the school context: fear of physical discomfort, academic failure, punishment, social assessment, among others.

          3.2 FSSC-Spanish Questionnaire on Fear of Children (FSSC-E)

          It consists of 80 elements and has an abridged version (25 elements) and updated from 2016, produced by Sandín and his collaborators.

          It is a questionnaire that is used to assess fear of danger, death, animals, strangers, social fears and medical fears.

          3.3 FSS-III-66 fear inventory

          The Spanish version has 60 topics and is used to assess the following phobias: social fears, agoraphobic fears, fears of little or no familiarity, fears of bloodshots, injuries and fears of animals.

          4. Instruments for Assessment of Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASD)

          Here are some of the most widely used tools for assessing separation disorders.

          4.1 Separation anxiety symptom inventory (SASI)

          This questionnaire includes 15 items and is used to retrospectively assess separation anxiety in people who are already adults, although it focuses on assessing separation anxiety caused at an early age.

          4.2 Childhood Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (CASI)

          This 26-item questionnaire is intended for children aged 6 to 11. Essentially assesses separation anxiety, separation discomfort and peace of mind in the face of separation. It also has a version for the child’s parents to respond to.

          4.3 Questionnaire on Separation Anxiety at the Beginning of the Hour (CASIT)

          This questionnaire is made up of 24 items and is intended for a very small population group (children aged 3 to 5). It is applied by the parents of the child and it assesses separation anxiety in relation to sleep, daily events, or the loss or harm of a loved one.

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