The human psyche is truly complex, its normative functioning being an essential element in being able to develop and adapt successfully to the environment. However, it is sometimes possible to find that for some reason there is some kind of alteration that makes this adaptation difficult, causing deep discomfort to those who are in pain and significantly altering their lives and / or those around them. This is what happens in psychiatric disorders.
There are a wide variety of these disorders, which significantly alter and hamper the lives of those who suffer from them. However, some are more common than others. In this article, we present fifteen of the most common.
What are the most common psychiatric disorders?
Below, we will reflect on the 15 most common psychiatric disorders that can be found in clinical practice.
1. Major depression and other depressive disorders
Major depression is one of the most common disorders in the world, characterized by the presence of a sad mood and the presence of apathy and anhedonia alongside other symptoms such as disturbed sleep, eating, feelings of hopelessness, loss of concentration, mental and physical sluggishness, frustration, and passivity. Suicidal ideation can occur.
In addition to major depression, dysthymia is also very common, in which depressive symptoms appear less severe than in major depression but continue over time (almost daily for at least two years).
2. Panic disorder with agoraphobia
All anxiety disorders are the most common type of disorder in the clinical population, although each of them separately may not be as common. One of the most common is panic disorder, in which anxiety attacks frequently occur in which tachycardia, sweating, rapid breathing, loss of control over one’s behavior, and fears such as dying or going mad appear. The idea that they reproduce generates anticipatory anxiety, Promote behavioral avoidance of situations in which it could appear.
In cases where agoraphobia occurs, anxiety occurs in situations where the subject cannot escape or may not receive help if they are suffering from a seizure, such as in places with a large influx people or very open places, a way that tends to avoid them (which is very limiting).
3. Alcohol addiction
Alcoholism is a very common problem, in part because of the relatively good social outlook on alcohol consumption. Dependence on this substance it can lead to serious health problemsLike liver problems, alcohol and even coma can lead to the death of those who suffer from it.
4. Anorexia nervosa
It is a more prevalent disorder in today’s society, derived from the cult of the body and the high appreciation of current aesthetics and beauty canons. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by rejection of food intake, refusal or refusal to maintain a minimum body weight, distortion of body image and other symptoms such as amenorrhea or no menstruation.
They often cause vomiting after eating, hide food, or exercise excessively so as not to gain weight. It is one of the few psychiatric disorders capable of committing suicide, due to the consequences of a lack of nutrients.
5. Bulimia nervosa
Along with the above, this is one of the most common eating disorders. Bulimia nervosa resembles anorexia in that there is an obsessive fear of gaining weight and there is some distortion of body image, but it is characterized by the presence of massive seizures in which she loses control.
After them come guilt and shame, leaving the suffering individual to employ compensatory methods in order not to gain weight, such as inducing vomiting.
Schizophrenia is arguably the most well-known psychotic disorder. It is characterized by the presence of hallucinations, Delusions, disorganized behavior and / or language, catatonia and / or negative symptoms such as allergy or poverty of thought for at least six months and producing significant impairment in one or more vital areas.
7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADHD is one of the best known and most diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders in the world, to the point that there is a high overdiagnosis of it. It is characterized by the presence of symptoms of inattention such as distraction, loss of objects, forgetting of activities or inability to perform tasks, among others, as well as symptoms of hyperactivity such as motor restlessness, inability to keep shifts, or disruption of the activities of others.
Despite the above, it is possible that there is only attention deficit, in which case we would only be dealing with ADD.
8. Autism spectrum disorder
Another of the most well-known neurodevelopmental disorders, autism is characterized by the presence of communication and socialization difficulties, with difficulties in managing, expressing and capturing emotions, Difficulties in the pragmatic use of language, lack of understanding and use of non-verbal language, isolation and lack of social reciprocity.
Restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests also appear, struggling to cope with change or requiring stable routines. Sometimes hyper or hyposensitivity to sensory stimulation also appears.
It should be noted that the concept of autism encompasses a number of phenomena that may or may not be present in every person diagnosed with ASD. Outraged, there are many degrees of autism, Which are expressed both through people with intellectual disabilities and unable to speak, to cases of individuals able to speak and with great intelligence.
9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
OCD is a disorder characterized by the continuous presence of persistent intrusive thoughts recognized as his own, which the subject himself considers irrational and which arouse in the subject a strong anxiety to consider them as inadmissible and which will try to actively block them, which causes concentration and overestimation of these. This will eventually generate its reappearance, generating the obsession.
The patient usually employs a series of ritual acts that temporarily relieve anxiety but this facilitates in the long run the reappearance of what are called compulsions. A vicious circle is established between the obsession and the compulsion which will cause deep suffering in the subject and an increasing level of anxiety, devoting a large part of his life to the realization of compulsions and to the active avoidance of it. obsession.
10. Bipolar disorder
Along with depression, it is part of mood disorders. This disorder is characterized by the presence of episodes of mania or hypomania alternating or not with depressive episodes. The former are characterized by the presence of expansiveness, grandeur, euphoria and disinhibition. They often become irritable and take more risks than usual, often performing actions that they would not normally do.
There are two types of bipolarity, type 1 which corresponds to suffering from at least one manic or mixed episode and there may or may not be alternation with one or more depressive episodes and type 2 in which there has been at least one at least one hypomanic episode followed or preceded in time by at least one depressive episode. In this type of disorder, the mood can fluctuate quickly and become very disabling. In fact, this is the type of disorder that poses the greatest risk for suicide, Above major depression.
11. Dependence on other substances
Substance dependence is a very common and relevant disorder in today’s population. In this list, we have previously separated alcohol addiction as it is one of the highest prevalence, the most frequent cocaine and heroin addiction are also more common.
The fact that these disturbances are very widespread cannot be understood without taking into account the influence of culture and political and economic dynamics.
12. Post-traumatic stress disorder
It is a disorder derived from the experience of a deep trauma in which the subject has seen his life or integrity threatened or has witnessed a situation that caused it. a strong sense of vulnerability, helplessness or fear.
After this experience the subject manifests continuous re-experiences, an avoidance of the stimuli associated with this situation and a high level of hyperactivity as physiological for more than a month. It is typical of situations of gender-based violence, rape or war.
13. Personality addiction disorder
It is one of the most common personality disorders characterized by the excessive need to treat the subject. Relationships of submission and obedience are established in relation to the environment to be loved and not abandoned. It usually occurs in people with low self-esteem and it is common for mood disorders to occur.
14. Borderline personality disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder is one of the most serious personality disorders characterized by the presence of strong emotional instability, the presence of impulsiveness and fluctuating mood with the presence of fear of abandonment, feelings of emptiness i alterations in self-consumption and personal relationships. In many cases, they self-harm and can even engage in autolytic behaviors.
15. Antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by the existence of a pattern of behavior in which disobedience to social norms, disrespect for the rights and opinions of others, cruelty, irritability and low tolerance appear. to frustration.