Faced with the appearance and manifestation of a certain psychopathology, an alteration of the affective or emotional state appears intrinsically.
Usually these types of psychological expressions tend to be confusing as they are often used incorrectly and indistinctly. In order to know in a concrete way the definition of the deviations of the affection, we have compiled a list of the main affective disorders.
What is affectivity?
Affectivity is defined as the set of states and tendencies that a person experiences in their own way and immediately, that is, they exhibit a predominantly subjective nature.
Outraged, it considerably influences the conformation of the personality and the behavior of the subject, To be therefore transcendent in the psychological development of the individual and is intrinsically associated with the communicative property since it is one of its fundamental goals. They are usually indicated using pairs of opposing terms such as joy / sadness, pleasure / pain, pleasant / unpleasant, etc.
In the DSM definition, affection is understood as behavior that expresses the subjective experience of a mood, or what is the same, an emotion. Thus, this concept relates to a more changeable and brief phenomenon, while humor refers to sustained and more permanent emotions.
1. Pathological joy
It refers to an extreme state of euphoria and hyperactivity and is linked to the presence of a manic episode or an organic image called “moria,” which is characterized by excessive arousal, childish behavior, and a tendency to play on words.
2. Pathological sadness
Set of symptoms based on an intense feeling of grief, sadness and grief in which the person experiences a significant decrease in interest in the environment. It is common in depressive episodes.
3. Pathological anxiety
It is a manifestation relating to a remarkable increase in the state of physiological tension accompanied by a permanent feeling of intense fear, such as a state of continual vigilance. This deviation is common in anxiety disorders, primarily.
4. Affective indifference or coldness
It refers to a state of absence of experiencing emotional sensations and is often linked to apathy or poor emotional responsiveness. It generally occurs in schizophrenic conditions, in pathologies of the histrionic personality, in organic-cerebral or endocrine alterations.
Anhedonia is defined by the inability to experience pleasure and is common in schizophrenia and depression.
6. Parathyroidism or emotional insufficiency
In this alteration, there is an incongruity between the affectivity expressed by the person and the contextual situation in which it manifests itself. It is characteristic of schizophrenic and organic-brain disorders.
7. Emotional or affective lability
This pathology is characterized by sudden changes in affection combined with the inability to contain it emotionally.. This is typical of dementias and pseudobulbar images. In the latter syndrome, fits of laughter or uncontrollable crying may occur, more frequently the latter.
This state is defined by the manifestation of a permanent bad mood, With little fluctuation. In DSM V, a distinction is made between dysthymic disorder or, what is the same, persistent depressive disorder. It is chronic although the intensity of symptoms is lower than in depressive disorder.
- More information: “Dysthymia: when melancholy takes over your mind”
It is understood as a feeling of general emotional discomfort, with a depressed mood and the presence of anxiety, rather than physiological and cognitive anxiety. A significant presence has been observed in gender identity disorders.
This pathology is defined by an alteration in the use of affective language, More precisely in prosody (tone, rhythm, accent, intonation) and in emotional modulation. This condition is found in patients with Parkinson’s disease or in patients who have sustained an injury to the right cerebral hemisphere.
In this case, there is also an alteration of emotional language, although referring to propositional aspects of language.. In other words, the person is unable to find a word that expresses his emotional state. It is common in chronic pain disorders.
- More information: “Alexithymia: the inability to say” I love you “”
12. Emotional rigidity
In this assignment, the ability to modulate and modify the emotions experienced is lost. and is associated with episodes of mania, depression or schizophrenia.
13. Ambivalence or ambitimia
In this manifestation, the expression of opposite emotions on the same object or phenomenon occurs simultaneously. It is found in various personality disorders as it can occur in non-clinical subjects as well.
It is defined as a sensation of “new appearance”, in the face of which the patient declares not to be able to recognize it in himself. or after having experienced it before. (Stolen or taxed emotional states). It is often associated with psychosis, epilepsy or heavy toxic use.
Lack of motivation, lack of “desire to do anything” and indifference to received external stimulation which is attributed to depressive states.
It is defined as the inability to perform an action voluntarily, Lack of energy to react behaviorally. It is linked to these pathologies of decreased motivation in the pediatric clinical population.
- CEDE (2012) CEDE PIR preparation manual, psychopathology. VOL.1.
- Casat, M. (2015) PIR Exam Preparation Manual vol. 1 “Editorial MAD.