The 3 types of color blindness (and its characteristics)

Diagnosis of color blindness or blindness, Although relatively easy to detect, it often goes unnoticed for many years and is reflected only with accidental exposure to an Ishihara test or exam such as a typical driver’s license.

Although it might sound strange, this is what happens in many cases: we don’t stop to think about the way we see, we just do it and think that our color, for example, blue is the same as what others perceive. .

    Brief definition of color blindness

    Color blindness or color blindness is a genetic condition in which the patient does not have the same number of types of cones in their visual system or has them but are altered.

    This is because we do not have the necessary elements to capture the wave frequencies that cause us to capture light in the form of different colors, which is due to sensory cells called cones.

    While most people have three types of cones (one for red, one for green, and one for blue) and even in some women have come to detect four (although this is very rare), color blind people will have at least one or three. one of them has been changed or less.

    This prevents us from capturing the wave frequency necessary to capture certain colors., Perceive stimulation at a different wave frequency. In this way, the subject will not be able to appreciate a color and those related to it, perceiving as if they were the others.

    The different types of color blindness

    Color blindness can occur in different ways, depending on the type of pigments that do not have or are changed. Specifically, there are three main types of color blindness, which are described below.

    1. Achromatism

    This is a very unusual condition. Achromatism or monochromatism appears when the subject has no pigment or the cones in question are in no way functional. The vision in this case is based on the information extracted from the cells which pick up the luminosity, the rods, xent only in levels of gray, black and white.

    2. Dichromatism

    usually when we think of a color blind person, we tend to identify with a person who suffers from dichromatism. As such is meant the type of color blindness caused by the absence of one of the types of pigments, so that it is not possible to perceive neither the color in question nor the colors associated with it (for example, if someone cannot see the color red will also have altered the perception of orange). In this case, the wave frequency that allows color perception cannot be captured, so the pigment that captures the closest wave frequency will perform its function, causing color confusion.

    In dichromatism we can identify three basic typologies.

    2.1. Protanopia

    The subject cannot capture the wave frequencies that can see the color red, which has a long wave frequency. The color red tends to be perceived as beige or gray, sometimes with greenish tones. If the deep frequency is very high, it is perceived in yellow.

    2.2. tritanopsia

    The least common of the types of dichromatism, affecting the perception of shortwave frequencies. The person with tritanopia does not have the pigment corresponding to the color blue, which is often confused with green. Likewise, yellows tend to look like red, purple, or white.

    2.3. Deuteranopia

    It is the most common type of color blindness with protanopia. In this case, it does not have the green pigment, not being able to pick up its own wave frequencies of that color (that would be medium wave frequencies). Green is not captured, it usually looks beige. The perception of red also tends to be affected, with brown tones.

    3.abnormal trichromy

    Abnormal trichromy occurs when the person in question has the same three types of pigments as most people, but nonetheless at least one is altered and non-functional. Although it is possible that if they have a slight non-functioning color perception, they need the stimulation to be very intense in order to be able to capture it, being more likely their vision to be similar to that of a dichromatic.

    In this type of color blindness we can find three subtypes according to which pigment is not functional.

    3.1. protanomaly

    In this case, the subject is able to perceive the colors green and blue normally, but the red is not assimilated and captured normally.

    3.2. Tritanomaly

    Blue is not captured correctly, being easy to confuse with others depending on the frequency of the captured wave. Red and green are usually captured.

    3.3. Deuteranomaly

    The anomaly is found in this case in the green pigment, which can not be perceived at all.

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