We can say that language is one of the most important elements for the human species, because it differentiates us from other animals and gives us the ability to reason, reflect, abstraction … in short, it gives us the power to communicate -in a systematic and clear manner with our peers.
Another great advantage that we humans have is the ability to convey this language in writing, so that it lasts over time and lets future generations know about our mistakes and successes. But no one said it would be easy: There are certain learning and speech disabilities that can compromise a child’s normal development in language terms.
In this article, we’ll talk about the most common learning disability in children – dyslexia – and one of the most well-known speech disorders, dyslalia.. Manifestations of dyslexia and dyslalia in children can lead to various confusions, which we will try to clarify with this article.
Main differences between dyslexia and dyslalia
The main differences between these two disorders, dyslexia and dyslalia, lie in their definition, their causes, the most common mistakes made by people who suffer from them and in their treatment.
1. Differences in definition
Dyslexia, the prevalence of which in the school population is 3 to 10%, is a learning disability with reading difficulties of neurological origin and considered to be chronic (that is, adults also suffer from dyslexia).
The reading skills of the dyslexic person are far below what is expected for their level of intelligence and maturity., And can present many difficulties in recognizing words at the written level. These difficulties can lead them to avoid activities as enjoyable as reading, or to avoid other activities such as studying, which are linked to the academic difficulties they frequently present.
Imagine for a moment the objective difficulties that a dyslexic person who studies for an exam or exams must go through. How frustrating that is, isn’t it ?, this is why it is common for people with dyslexia who don’t know they have it to feel hopeless, sad, with feelings of worthlessness, to think that they are useless for what they do, etc.
Unlike dyslexia, dyslalia is a phonological speech disorder and is usually not chronic. It is considered the most common speech disorder in children under 5 years old. It is an alteration of the correct articulation of phonemes, which consists of the inability of the child to correctly pronounce the sounds of words (or certain groups of words) that would be expected for their maturation and intellectual level.
2. Differences in the most typical dyslexia and dyslalia errors
The most common mistakes that a dyslexic person has while reading are: omitting letters and sounds, Move the position of letters in a word, hesitate to read or repeat what is read … In addition, having a slower pace in the reading activity, they have difficulty understanding what they have read.
Typical mistakes of a child with dyslalia are: omitting sounds, substituting one for another incorrectly (for example, saying this or gesa, instead of a table). In the most serious cases, it may be impossible to understand the child.
3. Differences in their causes
The causes of dyslexia appear to be genetically neurological, while the causes of dyslexia are much more varied., And the following stand out:
- Immaturity of speech organs
- Hearing defects that prevent the correct pronunciation of words
- Abnormal functioning of peripheral speech organs, being the most common reason. The most affected phonemes are: r, s, z, l, ki ch.
- Insufficient education or an unfavorable family environment for the child
- Defects of the organs involved in speech (labial, dental, palatine, lingual, mandibular and nasal).
4. Differences in treatment
These two disorders also differ qualitatively in the way they are treated.. In dyslalia, it is best to prevent and intervene early with a speech therapist and supportive exercises in the child’s home. In these cases, the child’s phonetics can be improved with appropriate therapy, although it is true that this will depend on the causes of the dyslalia. The speech-language pathologist will usually focus on performing exercises with the child in order to improve the muscles involved in the production of phonemes.
In contrast, the treatment of dyslexia is generally psycho-educational and speech therapy. In addition to the use of techniques for improving phonological awareness, the emotional state of the child or adolescent must be taken into account, so that this disorder does not prevent them from developing a healthy self-esteem. self.
Summary of the main differences
- Dyslexia is a learning disability; dyslalia is a speech disorder.
- Dyslexia is considered chronic, although it can be treated by obtaining notable improvements and adaptations to the environment; dyslalia, with good timely treatment, is not chronic.
- The causes of dyslexia are neurological; those of dyslalia are more varied (evolutionary or physiological, audiogenic, functional, organic).
- Dyslexia has more associated psychological and emotional problems than dyslalia. Some people with dyslexia can have serious self-esteem issues and can affect them throughout their lives.
- Treatment for dyslexia is generally psycho-educational, while dyslalia generally refers to speech therapy.