The 6 types of mood disorders

Our mood moves us. When we are sad we tend to close ourselves off, seeking to avoid action and pull away from things, while when we are happy and euphoric we tend to have energy and want to act.

Although some people act very rationally and say to put their emotions aside, they are the ones that allow us to motivate ourselves to do or not do something, to decide whether or not we like something or whether we tend to approach it. avoid situations or stimuli.

It also influences the way we see the world and ourselves. In short, it is something very relevant and which largely marks our ability to adapt. But more and more we come across people whose mood is not adaptive, it attaches to one extremity pathologically and is detrimental to their well-being and functionality. We are talking about mood disorders.

    What do we call mood disorders?

    Mood disorders are understood to mean the set of psychological alterations linked to the presence of more or less altered moods in a more or less persistent manner which generate a significant alteration in the person’s life, resulting from this extreme and pathological mood which makes it difficult for the person to adapt to their daily life.

    They are disorders that cause deep suffering to the person, altering aspects such as self-esteem, the way we see the world and events and assigning causes and responsibilities. They affect not only the emotional sphere itself, but also cognition and even the perception of the environment. They also generate repercussions in all areas of life, varying the way they relate to the environment and other matters within it.

    We are faced with the group of disorders, along with anxiety disorders, which are more prevalent in the world, suffering from a high percentage of the population from some kind of condition of this type. It should also be noted that the other group of disorders that we have just mentioned, anxiety disorders, they are deeply linked to these being frequent that they appear together or that the sufferings which one engenders end up causing the other.

      troubles included

      Among the mood disorders we can find some of the mental disorders with the highest incidence and prevalence in the world.

      Some of the most relevant nosological and diagnostic entities are as follows, although we have to keep in mind that we can also find unspecified depressive and bipolar disorders (which do not meet the sufficient characteristics of the disorders we will talk about but which we are related) and induced by substances and / or a medical disease.

      1. Major depressive disorder

      The most common mood disorder of all and one of the most well-known mental disorders. It is characterized by the presence for at least two weeks in a sad and run down mood most of the day with loss or decrease in motivation and the ability to feel pleasure, in addition to other symptoms such as problems. sleep, food and concentration, sluggishness or restlessness, fatigue, hopelessness and passivity.

      They also often have difficulty making decisions and may experience desires and thoughts of suicide.

      2. Dysthymia (current persistent depressive disorder)

      Similar to the previous one but generally with a lower intensity in the symptoms and with a much greater duration (which can happen to be chronic), it is identified as such with a disorder characterized by the presence for at least two years during most of the day for almost every day (without asymptomatic periods of more than two consecutive months) of depressed and sad mood, in addition to problems with eating, sleeping, fatigue, low self-esteem, hopelessness and problems concentrating and decision making.

      Although at one point it may seem less severe than major depression because its symptoms are less intenseIt should also be borne in mind that problems persist for much longer, resulting in build-up wear to be taken into account.

      3. Bipolar disorder

      Bipolar disorder is another of the main and most well-known mood disorders, in which there is usually an alternation between manic episodes (in which an expansive mood occurs for at least a week) and irritable, a low level. high energy, feelings of grandeur which can lead to delirium, verbiage, accelerated thinking, distraction, risky behavior and in some cases hallucinations to such a high level that sometimes hospitalization is necessary) or hypomanic (similar to the above but of less intensity and duration, being present for at least four days and still observable does not generate deterioration) and depressive episodes (equivalent to the symptomatology to the symptoms described in major depression, which implies in makes the existence of such episodes).

      There really isn’t any, but two basic types of bipolar disorder. In type 1 bipolar disorder, the subject experiences or has had at least one manic or mixed episode, which may or may not be preceded or followed by a depressive and hypomanic episode. To diagnose type 2, it is necessary that there is at least one depressive episode and one hypomanic episode (without manic or mixed episode).

        4. Cyclothymia or cyclothymic disorder

        Cyclothymia is defined as a mood disorder in which the subject exhibits multiple alternating hypomanic and depressive symptoms, without sufficient intensity to diagnose a depressive or bipolar episode or disorder over at least two years. Symptoms are continuous and generally exhibits rapid alternation, in days.

        We would be faced with the equivalent of the relationship between dysthymia and depression but in the case of bipolar disorder being milder than bipolar in symptoms but much longer and with faster cycles.

        DSM-5 modifications

        While most professionals still consider them to be mood disorders, the truth is that this diagnostic label disappeared as such in the latest version of one of the leading reference manuals, the DSM-5. And it is that in this one it was chosen to stop grouping all the mood disorders in one category and to do it in two, by virtue of the existence of two generic types of it.

        So today we can see that instead of mood disorders, the various psychopathologies mentioned above fall into two broad categories: bipolar disorder and depressive disorder.

        this decision this can create the problem of seeing them as very different clinical entities when they are often linked, but in practice it is still the same problems that were previously known with which has a great impact on the practical level.

        What is relevant is the creation of additional new diagnostic labels, which although no longer referred to as such, would also be part of what are known as mood disorders.

        Added troubles in DSM-5

        In addition to the above, in the latest version of DSM we find that new diagnostic tags have been generated. In this sense, the novelties include two disorders not previously identified as belonging to mood disorders or included in other disorders.

        1. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

        While the existence of PMS was previously known, being very common and experienced by a large number of women, DSM-5 added this syndrome as a disorder.

        It is considered to be such in the presence during most menstrual cycles of emotional lability (i.e. rapid mood swings), irritability, anxiety, intense stress, self-loathing or depression. with fatigue, sleep problems, appetite disturbances, pain, disinterest and concentration problems, requiring at least five of these symptoms in the week before menstruation.

        2. Destructive mood disorder

        This disorder is defined by the presence for at least a year and almost every day of disproportionate anger and irritability for the situation which generates them, exploding in the form of verbal or physical attacks (being able to arrive at the aggression) with a persistent irascible mood between the attacks.

        These occur at least three times and can be seen per week in more than two different settings, with the first symptoms appearing before the age of ten and not diagnosing either before the age of six or after the age of. eighteen years.

        Bibliographical references:

        • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth edition. DSM-V. Masson, Barcelona.

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