Types of ADHD (Features, Causes and Symptoms)

We have all heard of ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a psychological disorder that seems to be in vogue lately: more and more children are moving from “nervousness” to being diagnosed with this psychopathology.

Many professionals have raised their voices and warned that we may be overdoing this diagnosis too much, but the purpose of this article is not to question this, but simply define ADHD and detail the detection criteria. We will also highlight explain the two types of ADHD.

    What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    The acronym ADHD stands for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is characterized by severe hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention and is a type of psychological disorder that appears during childhood.

    It is often associated with other disorders such as difficult negativistic disorder, behavior or reading difficulties, is usually accompanied and detected, due to difficulties in school performance or conflicts in the family environment or with friends .

    Studies on families, adoptions and twins seem to support the importance of the genetic factor in this trouble.

    Types of ADHD and their characteristics

    There are two types of ADHD:

    • With a predominance of attention deficit
    • With a predominance of hyperactivity-impulsivity

    Below are the symptoms associated with each of these subtypes, but keep in mind that to diagnose ADHD, these symptoms should persist for at least 6 months with inadequate intensity and inconsistent with the level of development, and that at least six of the following symptoms described in the DSM-5 diagnostic manual must be given.

    1. ADHD Neglect

    This type of ADHD is characterized by intense symptoms related to care management issues, which affect both academic performance and social interactions.

    1. He often does not pay enough attention to detail or makes mistakes due to neglect in his homework, job or other activities.
    2. He often shows difficulty maintaining his attention in tasks or playful activities
    3. He often seems not to listen when spoken to directly
    4. Often does not follow instructions and do not complete schoolwork, homework or duties in the workplace (not due to negative behavior or inability to understand instructions)
    5. He often has trouble organizing tasks and activities
    6. He often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as school or homework).
    7. Often missing items needed for homework or activities, such as toys or school supplies
    8. He is often easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli
    9. It is often overlooked in daily activities

    2. ADHD hyperactivity

    This type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder focuses on poor behavior regulation, which is erratic and in which pauses are rare.

    1. He often moves his hands and feet too much, or fidgets in his seat, restless
    2. He often leaves his seat in class or in other situations where he is expected to sit
    3. He often runs or jumps excessively in situations where it is inappropriate to do so (in adolescents or adults this may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness).
    4. He often has difficulty playing or quietly engaging in leisure activities
    5. It is often “running” or generally acts as if it has an engine.
    6. He often talks too much impulsiveness
    7. This often rushes answers before questions are finished
    8. He often has trouble storing tumo
    9. He often interrupts or gets involved in the activities of others (for example, enters into conversations or games).

    Possible causes

    currently not a single known cause to explain the onset of ADHDAlthough it has been shown that certain events occurring throughout the development of the organism cause the appearance of this disorder, and it is also known that genetic predispositions exist. For example, smoking by pregnant women has an impact on the fetus, increasing their chances of developing a certain type of ADHD.

    Therapies and treatments for children and adults with ADHD

    Finally, it should be noted that there are currently many effective treatments to minimize the impact of ADHD on the life of children, adolescents or adults, and that not all of them involve medication. For example, cognitive and behavioral therapies, parent training and social skills, psycho-educational rehabilitation are good alternatives.

    One of the (rare) advantages of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder “is trending” is that studies are continually being conducted to improve treatments and that professionals can work very effectively, both in detecting and treating it. .

    also, it would be nice if we don’t forget that kids, as kids, are nervous and this is normal behavior that we shouldn’t worry about. This will only be a cause for special attention in the event that the diagnostic criteria we have mentioned are met, when it will be necessary to seek professional advice.

    It is also important to emphasize that there is evidence that treatments that do not involve drugs are also or more effective in treating ADHD and therefore we should follow the instructions of the mental health professional. A holistic approach to this type of child behavior disorder can be much more useful than approaches that prioritize direct intervention and the administration of psychotropic drugs.

    Bibliographical references:

    • Ashton H, Gallagher P, Moore B (September 2006). The Adult Psychiatrist’s Dilemma: The Use of Stimulants in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 20 (5): 602-10.
    • Brown, ET (2006). Attention deficit disorder. A hazy mind in children and adults. Barcelona: Masson.
    • Franke B, Faraone SV, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Bau CH, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Mick E, Grevet EH, Johansson S, Haavik J, Lesch KP, Cormand B, Reif A (October 2012). The genetics of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review. Molecular psychiatry. 17 (10): 960-87.
    • Geller, B .; Luby, J. (1997). “Childhood and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Past Ten Years”. [Desorden bipolar infantil y adolescente: una revisión de los últimos 10 años.]. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36: 1168-1176.
    • Neuman RJ, Lobos E., Reich W., Henderson CA, Sun LW, Todd RD (June 15, 2007). “Exposure to prenatal smoking and dopamine genotypes interact to cause a severe ADHD subtype.” Biol Psychiatry 61 (12): 1320-8.
    • Sroubek A, Kelly M, Li X (February 2013). Inattention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuroscience Bulletin. 29 (1): 103-10.

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