Types of stroke (definition, symptoms, causes and severity)

To this day, the word AVC is no stranger to the majority of the population.. Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, being in our country the second cause of death and the first among women over 75 years older than the leading cause of disability.

This phenomenon is due to an obstruction of the circulatory system in the brain, which leads to death by suffocation of part of the brain. But not all strokes happen in the same way or for the same causes. In order to better understand this phenomenon, in this article we will analyze the different types of stroke that exist.

Stroke or stroke

By cerebrovascular accident or cerebrovascular accident is meant the death or alteration of cerebral tissues caused by obstructions or ruptures of the blood vessels responsible for their irrigation. The effects of these phenomena will vary widely depending on the area affected, and can lead to death to loss of skills such as sight or movement of a part of the body.

In general, the factors that lead to the onset of stroke are silent (Special care should be taken with hypertension and diabetes, as well as tobacco and alcohol use) and the person who has it is usually not aware of the possibility of having it.

In addition, much of the population does not know the main warning signs that could signal the existence of a stroke. There are three very relevant symptoms joint presence is usually linked to suffering from a stroke: the existence of hemiparesis or sudden paralysis on one side of the face (it is common to show this in the smile), the existence of sudden speech disturbances (uncoordinated, illogical, unintelligible or bizarre speech) and weakness or hypotonia (even paralysis) of one or more limbs of a hemibody.

Getting to medical services as quickly as possible is essential, as early care will prevent or reduce the death of brain tissue. Even if this does not result in the death of the patient, it is likely that they will generate some type of handicap (although in many cases skills lost can be recovered).

Types of stroke

As we said, not all strokes have the same characteristics, occur in the same way, or are due to the same causes. That is why we have different classifications regarding the types of stroke.

Usually, the existence of two large groups was considered, within which we can find various typologies.

1. Hemorrhagic stroke

Hemorrhagic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage is that type of stroke that occurs when one or more blood vessels rupture, robbing the blood of brain tissue and causing it to suffocate. And to this disease, we must add the pressure that can cause the accumulation of blood inside the skull. They can occur not only in the brain, but also in the meninges and inside the ventricles of the brain.

Different types of hemorrhagic strokes can be found, which can be caused under different circumstances.

1.1. Stroke due to traumatic brain injury

A traumatic brain injury can in turn cause a stroke in the form of a cerebral hemorrhage., By breaking the blood vessels in the brain.

1.2. Stroke due to an aneurysm

Another common cause of brain hemorrhage is the presence of aneurysms, Localized enlargements of the blood vessels generated due to the weakness of the blood vessels. These are protuberances filled with blood which, since they have a weakened wall, are very easy to break due to the pressure exerted by the blood flow.

1.3. Stroke due to AVM and other deformities

There are various disorders and syndromes of genetic origin that cause the blood vessels in the brain to not develop properly or to be very fragile, as in the case of arteriovenous malformation syndrome, which it can be easy for them to break away from.

2. Ischemic stroke

Also called a cerebral infarction, an ischemic stroke occurs when one of the arteries in the brain becomes blocked, so that it stops the flow of blood outside the brain. This causes the brain tissue to lack the oxygen and nutrients needed to survive and die within a short time. In general, when we talk about stroke, we are generally referring to those of this type, being the most common of the larger types.

In ischemic strokes we can find several types.

2.1. Stroke due to cerebral embolism

In embolism, the element that causes the blockage of the artery comes from outside the nervous system, Traveled through the blood to reach this system and cause ischemia if it is larger than the blood vessel through which it passes. It is usually a blood clot that breaks away from its place of origin.

2.2. Stroke due to cerebral or atherothrombotic thrombosis

In this type of ischemic stroke the blockage occurs in the blood vessels of the brain itself. It is common in people with arteriosclerosis.

2.3. Lacunar stroke or small vessel

Lacunar stroke is a subtype of ischemic stroke in which the blocked blood vessel is an arteriole., Part of the branches of the arteries that reach different points of the brain. The amount of tissue that dies is usually small, but can also have serious effects depending on the area in which it occurs. It is also possible that no symptoms appear and the lesion remains silent.

2.4. Transient ischemic attack

This type of ischemic stroke occurs when one of the blood vessels is blocked they supply part of the brain, but the system itself is able to overcome it so that the symptoms appear in a short period of time, which can last up to 24 hours.

However, although it resolves on its own, it usually indicates the possibility of developing a more severe and permanent stroke, and it is necessary for the affected person to implement prevention strategies and controls of his condition. health. It would be similar to the relationship between angina and a heart attack.

2.5. hemodynamic stroke

It is a type of stroke in which there is a decrease in the level of blood pressure so the blood does not come strong enough to properly irrigate the whole brain. Although there may be no obstruction as such, it is seen in ischemic strokes.

Bibliographical references:

Chan PH (January 2001). “Reactive Oxygen Radicals in Ischemic Signaling and Brain Injury”. Journal of Blood Circulation and Brain Metabolism. Ciaccio EJ, Lewis SK, Biviano AB, Iyer V, Garan H, Green PH (August 26, 2017). “Cardiovascular involvement in celiac disease”. World J Cardiol (Review). Mohr JP, Choi D, Grotta J, Wolf P (2004). Stroke: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Morris, Dylan R .; Ayabe, Kengo; Inoue, Takashi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Bulbulia, Richard; Halliday, Alison; Come on, Shinya (March 1, 2017). “Evidence-Based Carotid Interventions for Stroke Prevention: A State-of-the-Art Review”. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. Saver JL, Goyal M, van der Lugt A, Menon BK, Majoie CB, Dippel DW, et al. (September 2016). “Treatment time with endovascular thrombectomy and ischemic stroke findings: a meta-analysis.” JAMA.

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