Bloom’s taxonomy: a tool for educating

Education is the process by which training is provided to one or more people with the aim of developing, training and optimizing their cognitive, emotional, social and moral capacities.

Education is an essential element to generate a common context and learn the different skills necessary to adapt to the environment and be able to perform different functions, which has concerned humanity since ancient times.

Although access to formal education has only been compulsory and accessible to all relatively recently, different models or attempts have been made to assess what is supposed to be achieved or what are the goals of formal learning. One of these models is Bloom’s taxonomy, Which we will talk about throughout this article.

    Bloom’s taxonomy: what is it?

    Bloom’s taxonomy is a classification of the different objectives to be achieved through formal education led by Benjamin Bloom based on the three aspects that different educational experts reflected in 1948 when trying to build consensus on the goals of education: cognition, affectivity and psychomotor skills.

    This is a classification of objectives carried out in a hierarchical manner, organized according to whether the activity requires a more or less complex treatment. The author started from his classification of the contributions of behaviorism and cognitivism which prevailed at the time.

    This taxonomy has been used and valued in the world of education since its conception. In itself, although Bloom’s taxonomy starts from the consideration of the three major aspects and these are analyzed and classified, tends to focus mostly on the cognitive side, This taxonomy being completed in 1956. Concerning the classification of the objectives and the dimensions worked on in each aspect, in the taxonomy we can find the following.

      Cognitive taxonomy

      The aspect that has perhaps been most emphasized throughout the history of education, and on which Bloom’s taxonomy also particularly focuses, is in the cognitive realm.

      In, it aims to improve the skills of students in the achievement or achievement of certain cognitive capacities or objectives (in particular 6) of different intellectual, affective and psychomotor capacities. according to Bloom’s taxonomy are as follows.

      1. Knowledge

      Although the concept of knowledge may seem very broad, in this taxonomy it is indicated as such the ability to remember what has been previously acquired in a more or less approximate manner. It is considered the most basic of abilities that the student must acquire and that which requires the least treatment.

      2. Understanding

      Acquiring and recording what has been learned does not require a lot of processing, but does not in itself allow one to adapt to the environment. We need to understand what we have learned. A second objective is therefore to be able to transform information as it comes to us into something we can come to understand and interpret.

      3. Application

      A more complex step is that of application. At this point, the subject must not only grasp and understand what is being said to him, but also be able to use it. Knowing and understanding what a multiplication is is not the same as doing it in a practical way and when it is necessary.

      4. Analysis

      Information analysis means being able to abstract the knowledge acquired in the previous moments, requiring the ability to fragment the reality of what has been learned in order to distinguish what configures it and allow application in different fields.

      He can reach develop hypotheses and test them based on the information provided. Continuing the multiplication of the previous example, it would be able to understand that we can do a multiplication on a given problem and why it is correct. Requires high processing.

      5. Synthesis

      Synthesis is about summarizing a model, combining the information received to create something different from what has been learned (in fact, in later reviews the synthesis is changed by creation). It is one of the most complex cognitive goals since it’s not just about working with the information learned but also to incorporate other elements which serve to us to obtain its base and to apply it to create.

      6. Evaluation

      This element consists mainly of being able to make judgments on the basis of a criterion or a well-founded opinion. It can even mean not accepting what is taught., This requires a very advanced level of mental elaboration.

      Review of this educational proposal

      While Bloom’s taxonomy has been a benchmark in the world of education since its inception, this does not mean that different authors have not made any changes in this regard. Specifically, the one published in 2001 by Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl, students of the original author, stands out.

      In this change, it was proposed that instead of using nouns to assess each of the key categories or objectives, verbs will be used, making it easier to understand that the goal is to perform a certain action and not its outcome. himself. It is emphasized that we are faced with an event that requires an active attitude and makes the student the protagonist of their own learning process.

      Category sequencing has also been changed, taking into account evaluating higher-order thought but below the creation process (in the original model, the evaluation was considered to be higher than synthesis / creation. ).

      The model was also subsequently extended including various aspects related to the use of new information technologies and communication, assimilating to other models.

      bibliographical references

      Bloom, BS (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational objectives: Manual I, cognitive domain. New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green.

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