Bullying and mimetic theory
Bullying has always existed, even before it was even referred to as such, but research in this regard has increased in recent decades due to the need arising from the transitions through which it has traversed the social and educational realm. It is clear that it is no longer enough to reflect on the observations and the results of this research, it is now necessary to delve into the psychological theories that they support them and that they frame a better understanding of reality, so complex today, orienting itself towards relevant actions which give foot to a reformulation of social paradigms.
Definition of bullying
To better analyze this phenomenon, it is necessary to define it well.
Human beings are aggressive by nature and often they are violent by nature. social learningAlthough their behavioral expression varies according to cultures and times, to constitute a violent, overt and / or masked relational climate, which has become a well-understood social phenomenon (Gómez: 2006).
however, What do we mean by bullying or bullying? The Anglo-Saxon term of harassment is commonly used to designate the phenomenon of “bragging”. Thus, school bullying is the condition of peer mistreatment characterized by the harassment and / or intimidation of the aggressor on the victim, In the school environment. Consequently, a student is a victim when he is repeatedly and indefinitely exposed to negative acts committed by one or more students.
Negative action occurs when a subject intentionally causes harm or injury, morally, psychologically or physically transgresses another individual. Negative actions can be committed verbally, for example with threats and ridicule, with deception or even physically, by contact actions such as pushing, hitting, kicking, pinching, spitting. There is also violence that is neither physical nor verbalFor example, laughter, grimaces, obscene gestures, lustful harassment as well as exclusion or refusal to satisfy the correct and legitimate desires of the other person.
The effects of bullying extend far beyond the specific times when the bullying occurs, as victims are often anxious about going back to school and are terrified of crossing paths again. with the abuser.
It is considered that they are immersed in these problems and that to a greater or lesser extent they are victims, both students who are unduly aggressive towards others, and those who are directly victims of these attacks. They are also victims of the violence of students who, without being immediately involved, are indirectly, because they are observers and passive subjects of the same, forced to live in social situations where the problem is latent.
Why does bullying happen?
The essential factor in bullying is the immanent human desire for domination, to master things like that, rejoicing in their unhappiness even if it is self-inflicted.
As UNESCO points out, the likelihood that school will be viewed by the student as an emotionally positive experience will depend on the environment that students and teachers manage to create. the emotional climate of school is given by the presence or absence of violence and other disturbances in different environments. Currently, among the various phenomena of violence that can occur in schools, it has been decided to focus the attention in a fundamental way on those who have as actors and victims the students themselves, who are repeat offenders and who break the symmetry. that should exist in peer-to-peer relationships, fostering or fostering victimization processes in those subjected to interpersonal violence.
A fundamental aspect of the phenomenon of bullying is the existence of a power imbalance. It is a constant present in all these contexts of interpersonal relations where they are together, more or less obligatorily, but in a relatively permanent way, people of equal social status who are constrained by the circumstances to share scenarios, jobs or simple activities; students who attend educational institutions find themselves in these conditions, so that they can, and in fact are, involved in issues of victimization.
Mimicry: entering the vicious circle of bullying
“Violence must be recognized as a mimetic character, of such intensity that violence cannot die of itself once it has taken hold in the community. To get out of this circle, it would be necessary to eliminate the terrible delay of violence which mortgages the future; men should be deprived of all the models of violence which continue to multiply and generate new imitations.
—Irard (1983, 90).
In light of the above, violence in schools, from a social point of view, is established as a public health problem and a significant element which carries a psychosocial risk due to multiple derivations in the psychological, biological and social aspect.
The phenomenon of school violence is nothing more than the reverberation of the aggressive subversion that emerges from families and society in general. The capacity for school violence is due to a deterioration of horizontal relationships between couples as well as vertically, between teachers, parents and students, being the most notorious and disturbing, from my point of view, student mistreatment of teachers and institutions, Which pays great attention to the consideration that teachers and the school give to students, social influence and mainly home training.