Dyslexia has become one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in children during the last years. Although it is very complex to detect an exact percentage of prevalence due to the problem of rigorously establishing a clear diagnosis, the latest studies indicate that about 15% of students have these difficulties. For this reason, it seems increasingly necessary to define the most effective psycho-educational and psychological guidelines to effectively address this population group.
Dyslexia: main indicators
Dyslexia is the usual nomenclature given to the Specific learning disability (ASD) related to the presence of reading and writing difficulties. As provided by the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in the most recent version (2013), it refers to the presence of difficulties in fluent word recognition, poor reading decoding in spelling and deficits in reading comprehension.
outraged it may be accompanied by changes in written expression or mathematical reasoning, Which must be further specified in the initial diagnosis. Another key aspect is the presence of a preserved level of general intellectual ability, so that ASD literacy is incompatible with significant levels of intellectual disability, and cannot be explained by sensory deficits, whether visual or hearing. The difficulties indicated must be competent for a minimum period of six months and must cause significant interference in the academic development of the student.
More precisely, when observing the following behaviors which are then exposed, the presence of a TEA-Lectoescriptura can be suspected, from which it is known necessary to make a comprehensive psycho-educational assessment to corroborate these indications:
- Change in placement or omission when writing letters that make up a word.
- Difficulty in acquiring the ability to read, poor reading fluency.
- Confusion or forgetting of certain words.
- Difficulty establishing the time sequence between days, months, etc.
- Impaired attention span and difficulty concentrating.
- Increased mastery of enzymatic manipulation tasks of verbal activities.
- Better speaking than writing.
- Lack of mastery of the alphabet or the multiplication tables.
- Need to read a text several times, Poor reading comprehension.
- Greater mastery of the creative or imaginative capacity.
Guidelines for the educational care of dyslexic children
As educators, it is essential to take into account the following guidelines when dealing with a child with this peculiarity, because an empathetic attitude, strengthening their potential and flexible according to their difficulties will have a protective effect in order to avoid problems of low self-esteem or self-esteem and even situations of longer school failure:
1. Establish a daily reading habit of about 20 minutes maximum.
It is recommended that the content of this reading be of interest to the child, whether it is a story, a magazine or a comic book. The relevant point is that you acquire a positive attitude for reading. It will also be necessary to assess whether the volume of academic reading to be done during the course should be limited.
3. Be flexible in spellchecking
It seems more efficient the priority work of 3-4 spelling rules up to their domain to add new ones later.
5. Facilitate short and concise statements and requests
Use short sentences to give directions using a visual aid that can be used as a reference. The indications must be segmented and expressed gradually. Parace also more fundamental adapt the records of exercises and exams so that they can be understood by the child allowing occasional explanatory clarification.
6. Establish an objective plan adapted to each case
These goals should specify realistic and achievable goals for the student, either weekly, monthly or quarterly.
7. Make it easier to plan assignments and exams well in advance
In this way, the dyslexic student you can organize your study time, Measure your work to avoid feeling overwhelmed.
8. Positively reinforce the student’s effort
It must be done do not prioritize the result obtained at the quantitative level. In many cases, there is a decrease in motivation to do schoolwork, so the support of the educator will be essential for the child.
9. As educators, avoid comparisons with other classmates, brothers and sisters, etc.
As noted, it is very common for the self-esteem of these students to be affected. Thereby it can significantly affect their academic performance and the realization of their potential.
10. Insist on their autonomy in the performance of their duties
It is very positive to convey the idea to the student of his potential learning capacity. is recommended avoid overprotection regarding non-compliance with their academic responsibilities.
Because of his preserved general cognitive capacities, the child is able to assume his school obligations, even if these are adapted to his specific difficulties. The application of these adaptations is evaluated by the school in order to adapt quantitatively and qualitatively the methodology, the correction criteria and the learning objectives for each student individually.
As mentioned in the text, most often the assimilation of the presence of psychoeducational difficulties in the pupil himself is a process that can significantly interfere with the psychological development of the child, causing in certain situations an aggravation of the diagnostic situation initially raised. For that, early detection and intervention of indicated deficits is a fundamental process to avoid further deterioration of the child’s various vital areas, both academically and emotionally.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (ed. 5a). Washington, DC: author.
- Tamayo Lorenzo, S. Dyslexia and difficulties in acquiring literacy. Faculty, 21 (1): 423-432 (2017).