Human development is a long and complex process. Although this process tends to take place over certain periods of time, we all have our own pace of physical and mental maturation, and the learnings we acquire throughout life also follow each other at different rates.
This is taken into account in the field of education, although it does not prevent, as a rule, that the different school years take into account the need for certain knowledge, skills or aptitudes in order to be successful. This is the expected learning concept, Which we will talk about throughout this article.
Expected learning: what is it and what does it involve?
Expected learning is any body of knowledge that is expected to be acquired within a level of learning (for example, at school) within the level of education studied. . It is considered that this learning must be able to be expressed in a concrete and operational way, and can be applied and generalized later.
This concretization implies that the concept of expected learning is usually very concise, referring to a specific activity or knowledge that the subject should have. These are indicators in relation to the expected success of each student in different facets during the training period.
Technically, this expected learning is used to evaluate what has been achieved thanks to the evaluations carried out throughout the school year. It not only refers to theoretical concepts, but can also incorporate attitudes, perspectives, skills, actions and other skills that can be demonstrated by assessment. Basically, if we look at the goals of a teaching plan, we will usually see the expected learning that needs to be achieved.
The expected learning they are not limited to early childhood education: In any education or training process, certain objectives are expected to be achieved. For example, university education should also acquire content and skills to ensure future good professional practice, or even unofficial courses to assess whether the process has been followed and what was expected has been achieved.
The need for good sequencing
The expected learning does not occur on a whim or is organized haphazardly: the fundamental aspects to be acquired must be carefully assessed and both the capacities of the subjects following the course and the learning they have already taken into account. considered reached later. This is essential if we want these expected learnings to be meaningful (that is, we can ascribe meaning to them), although the expected learning can also be simply memorial.
In this sense, they must be organized in a logical manner and organize the content in such a way that the demand and difficulty towards the student gradually increases. It would go in that direction of what is fundamental and fundamental of the complex.
In this sense, there are a large number of guides developed in terms of the knowledge that students of different courses should have, although it is necessary to take into account and adapt each of them to the conditions of the students themselves. , country and culture, and the educational and socio-economic conditions of group members.
Three fundamental areas of expected learning
As we have said, expected learning is used as an indicator of the goals achieved by students and they make it possible to assess their learning capacity and the achievement of educational objectives. In other words, that they learned what was supposed to be learned. And as we have seen, they are not limited to only theoretical knowledge: there are various valued elements which are supposed to be acquired.
For example, if we group them by formative domains, we can find those that are part of language and communication, mathematical thinking, nature, art, social and physical development. But although each subject usually has its own objectives and expected learning, in general the key areas or factors that are considered learned can be included in three broad groups.
Knowledge refers to the theoretical knowledge acquired during the school year. It does not require practical application or even generalization, but the acquisition of knowledge in itself is sufficient. This is probably the most easily assessed depending on whether the content is learned or not, be the most representative of academic training.
2. Know how
In this case, reference is made to the practical use of knowledge. This necessarily involves an understanding of the processes necessary to achieve an end, although sometimes theoretical knowledge is not fundamental of what they imply for it. Applied mathematics, music, carpentry or mechanics are some of the skills that usually require learning associated with the know-how.
3. Knowing how to be
This last factor unites all attitudes, ways of acting and integrating beliefs and values in daily life, linking and maintaining positively motivation and orientation towards a goal. This is something that can be worked into emotional education, Or intended to be achieved by performing various activities. Many of the skills required in college education or in professional fields such as psychology (eg, empathy, unconditional acceptance, etc.) would be part of this expected learning group.
Benefits and Precautions
The development of a learning system based on expected learning is very useful for both students and teachers. And it is that in the first place allows training to be organized adaptively, Structure what, how and when to introduce the different concepts to be learned and facilitate the generation of strategies.
However, it should be noted that these goals are generalized to the average of the age group or school year, but individualized plans or adaptations for users with functional diversity should also be considered and developed. Psychic, physical or sensory whether by default or by excess.
In addition to this, it should be borne in mind that the learning must be operational, of course, and relevant, otherwise it would be complicated or absurd to integrate it as intended.