Psychopedagogical diagnosis: what it is, objectives and characteristics

Knowing the difficulties that a student may present is essential to ensure that he is able to acquire the knowledge required in the school curriculum. Otherwise, the child may be left behind, have serious problems in the future, mixed with frustration and loss of interest in studying.

The main objective of the psychoeducational diagnosis is to detect the difficulties in the student, Then design guidelines to improve their learning capacity by involving both teachers and their families.

Below, we will see more about this tool, what are its objectives, what functions it fulfills, what elements must be involved in its realization and what dimensions it evaluates.

    What is the psychoeducational diagnosis?

    Psychopedagogical diagnosis is the process by which it involves describe, classify, predict and, if necessary, explain student behavior in the school context, By linking it to other systems involved in their education, such as family and community. This process includes all of the individual or institution’s measurement and assessment activities to provide advice on the student in question.

    Psychopedagogical diagnosis is a very important part of the work of educational professionals, such as educators, teachers and promoters of learning. The process aims to assess the level of development and learning of children, Evaluate their skills, abilities and habits, as well as know the quality of their affective processes. Knowing all this, it is a question of making known to the educator the most appropriate means to promote the development of the child.

    Objectives of this tool

    The objectives of the psychoeducational diagnosis are diverse, although they can be summarized, basically, in the following.

    1. Check the student’s progress

    It aims to check the student’s progress towards the educational objectives defined in the school program. These objectives include, basically, three domains: the cognitive, the emotional and the psychomotor..

    2. Identify the factors that may interfere with your education

    The objective is to identify the factors of the teaching-learning context which can interfere with the development of the individual.

    In other words, that is to say it aims to know the possibilities and limits of the child in terms of learningBoth clean and from the environment in which it is raised, such as disturbances such as unfavorable family economic situation.

    3. Adapt the pupil’s teaching-learning

    Finally, it is a question of adapting the teaching-learning situation, that is to say of adapting the pedagogical strategies so that the individual acquires the knowledge required in the academic course. To achieve this, it will be necessary to take into account the way in which the pupil is progressing, helping him to overcome difficulties and, if they occur, correcting delays in learning school content.

      the functions

      From the objectives that we have just seen on the psychoeducational diagnosis, we can highlight the following functions of this tool.

      1. Prevention and forecast

      It allows to know the possibilities and the limits of the individual, because thus anticipate their development and the course of learning in the future.

      2. Identification of the problem and its seriousness

      As its name suggests, this tool is diagnostic and therefore has the function of discovering the causes, both personal and environmental, which hinder the development of the student.

      3. Orientation

      Once the student’s needs have been detected, the psycho-educational diagnosis is used to design an intervention plan, The guidelines are focused on solving and improving the development and learning of the individual.

      4. Correction

      If you want reorganize the current situation of the individual through the implementation of the intervention, With all the necessary recommendations.

      essential principles

      When carrying out a psychoeducational diagnosis, a series of principles must be followed to make it as exhaustive as possible. The intention of all this is to ensure that the application of a tool that can mark the future of the child is properly managed.

      Ignoring basic aspects of a child’s life and assuming that their problems may be due to a learning disability, such as ADHD or dyslexia, ignoring possible socio-cultural conditions can do more harm than good to their children. children. that’s why the educational psychologist must ensure that he takes into account the following four principles in the realization and application of this tool.

      1. Territorial character

      The subject develops in a place in the world, that is to say that he is in contact with phenomena located in a space, in a territory. Among these phenomena, we find the customs, traditions, language and slang used, socio-economic opportunities …

      2. Generic character of age

      Personality development does not happen in a piecemeal fashion. Personality traits are aspects that evolve gradually during childhood, forming a continuum.

      3. Dynamic character

      This dynamic character materializes when the diagnosis is carried out continuously. This means that it not only serves to define how to help children, but also allows give feedback on the effectiveness of the treatment applied to them.

      4. Systemic character

      This tool is said to be systemic in nature because it takes an integrated view of child development. Therefore, the functions of the child should not be studied separately or considered as independent aspects. There are correlations between psychic and somatic development, and therefore mental aspects must be expected to go hand in hand with their way of relating to the world and their degree of psychomotor development..

      elements involved

      Several elements are involved in the development and application of this psycho-educational tool:

      1. The school

      The school is a social institution that can be seen as an open system sharing functions with other systems which integrate the entire social environment lived by the student.

      This system has a lot to do with another: the family. These two systems must act as complementary systems, as it is the interaction between the two that will determine the success or failure of the child’s learning process.

      The school can become an institution that promotes children’s learning or it can also be a source of conflict depending on the way in which the content to be taught is structured and linked to the different hierarchical levels or to other systems and sub-systems. systems.

      2. The teacher

      The teacher is a key figure in the educational process. He is a professional who belongs and acts in different subsystems at the same time, because he is immersed in the same community in which the student is a part, sharing his class, being in his same school, his same city or his neighborhoods and getting involved in various community phenomena.

      In turn, it also establishes direct contact with the parents of the student and with other teachers involved in their education.

      The teacher has the responsibility to improve the development of his pupils by teaching contents, habits and values ​​which will lay the foundations of an appropriate model of behavior and knowledge for future responsible citizens.

      3. The student

      The pupil plays several roles in the educational process, being in each of them the beneficiary. In other words, the teaching is directed towards him.

      However, this does not mean that he is simply acting as a student, because in class, he is also a companion and a friend of other students, while on arriving home, where the educational process also takes place, he is a son, a grandson, a nephew. , younger / older brother … In short, the student is impossible to separate from other systems.

      4. The family

      The family is a system that has the psychosocial function to protect its members, Especially their little ones, in addition to having the function of transmitting and encouraging the child to adapt to his culture.

      This institution is not neutral. He lives in a socio-cultural context and has a family culture that influences his ideology, habits and values, which will undoubtedly influence the way he educates his children. This family education method can come into direct conflict with the way things are done at school, creating tensions between parents and teachers and harming the student.

      5. The educational psychologist

      the educational psychologist it is the connection link between these systems. He may be part of the school’s own team, or of different educational administrations involved in detecting problems in the classroom and in the family.

      This figure is linked and coordinated with other institutions, such as municipal services, rehabilitation and mental health centers, parents’ associations, students …

      The main function of the educational psychologist is help establish a context of collaboration between the different parties involved, Especially with teachers, define how the student should be involved.

      Dimensions and fields of action

      Psychopedagogical diagnosis it takes into account various personal and environmental dimensions of the student. It is necessary to take into account the educational and social context in which the pupil is immersed, that is to say his family, his school and the community. These systems influence, as noted above, the performance of students, both in school and in their emotional, psychological and physical development.

      On the personal level, that is to say on the student, we have the biological, psychomotor, cognitive, cognitive, motivational, affective and social dimensions. In terms of socio-environmental dimensions, we have the school, the parent group, the family and the community.

      1. Organic

      • Physical development and maturation
      • physical health
      • psychophysiological state
      • Sensations and perceptions

      2. Psychomotor skills

      • dexterity
      • coordination
      • laterality
      • body image

      3. Cognitive

      • Intellectual development
      • general intelligence
      • specific abilities
      • Potential and learning styles
      • knowledge
      • creativity
      • Language

      4. Cognitive

      • beliefs
      • Memory
      • imagination
      • Problem solving

      5. Motivation

      • expectations
      • attributions
      • interests
      • attitudes

      6. Affection

      • personal story
      • emotional stability
      • personality
      • personal adaptation
      • self concepts

      7. Social

      • Social development and adaptation
      • social skills
      • Interaction with others

      8. Educational center

      • Physical and architectural aspects
      • Resources
      • Organization and operation
      • educational project
      • Support services
      • Sociodemography
      • psychosocial aspects

      9. Parent group

      • socio-structural aspects
      • procedural aspects
      • Socio-academic aspects

      10. Family

      • Relationships with family and community
      • socio-economic aspects
      • Socio-academic aspects

      11. Community

      • Socio-structural and demographic aspects.
      • Procedural aspects (values, attitudes, interests …)
      • Socio-academic aspects

      Bibliographical references:

      • Bassedas, E., Huguet, T., Marrodán, M., Oliván, M., Planas, M., Rossell, M. and others (1991). Educational intervention and psycho-educational diagnosis. Barcelona: Laia
      • Cardona, MC, Chiner, E. and Lattur, A. (2006) Psychopedagogical diagnosis. San Vicente: University club.
      • García Ugalde, JM and Penya Velázquez helps S. (2005). Psychopedagogical diagnosis in special education: a case study. [Tesis de Licenciatura]. Hidalgo: Autonomous University of Hidalgo State, Institute of Health Sciences, Psychology.

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