Teaching strategies: what they are, types and examples

There are many teaching strategies, and every teacher should know them so that they know how to choose the most appropriate based on the occasion, the students and the content to be taught.

Whatever is going to be taught, it is essential that in order to give meaningful learning, the teacher makes his lessons a little fun, fruitful and that arouses the interest, curiosity and motivation of his students.

Below we will see what are the teaching strategies, In addition to seeing the most common and applicable in education.

    What are the teaching strategies?

    Teaching strategies are methods, procedures or resources used by teachers to ensure that their students acquire meaningful learning. Applying these strategies enables teachers to turn learning into an active and more participatory process that the student remembers more easily. Many of these strategies have in common that they are very cooperative, which facilitates the assimilation of values, develops a better emotional adequacy in the students and prepares them for life in society.

    These strategies, although very versatile, should not be applied without prior knowledge of the material to be taught. The choice of pedagogical strategy must be made taking into account the goals to be achieved, as well as the skills to be developed in the students. It is very important that the teacher knows how to play his role, as it is his responsibility to foster a learning environment.

    Traditionally, the teaching strategy has focused on the transmission of knowledge from the teacher, seen as an absolute expert, and the student, seen as a complete ignorant. This process placed particular emphasis on memorization of content, assessed through written exams or exercises which, on many occasions, did not invite them to take critical positions, favoring ease of correction for teachers.

    Fortunately, this has changed, which has made teachers more aware that, in order to achieve better learning, it is necessary to apply varied teaching strategies, adapted to each type of person, content and situation. Thanks to its diversity, the teaching process can be made truly effective, To arouse the curiosity of the pupils, their participation and to add an important element of play.

    The most common teaching strategies in education

    Below, we will look at the most common teaching strategies, which every teacher should know in order for their teaching job to be truly successful. These methods can be used both to activate knowledge already mastered by students and to teach them new ones, as well as to encourage critical thinking and better logical argumentation.

    1. Illustrations

    The illustrations are visual representations of concepts, objects or situations described in theory or on a specific topic what was discussed in class as a historical photograph, a drawing illustrating the structure of a building, diagrams, graphs and other visual aids. There are four different types with different functions.

    • Description: shows figures, photographs and drawings.
    • Expressive: figures or drawings in which the attitudinal aspects stand out.
    • Logic-mathematical: are diagrams of mathematical concepts or functions.
    • Algorithms: These are diagrams that include the steps of a procedure.

    Although they can be used with students of all ages, they are essential for the little ones, because they do not yet have a broad knowledge of the world and the best way they have to build it is through visual representations.

    2. Objectives

    The objectives are stated in which the conditions, type of activities and the way in which learning will be assessed are established. It is through his explanation at the beginning of the course that he makes the students understand what is expected of him, in addition to charting the path to follow.

    It is very important to set these goals because, in addition to serving as a guide for the teacher, it allows the student to know, in advance, what to do during the course.

    This gives students the opportunity to take responsibility for their own learning, to research on their own instead of waiting for the teacher to tell them what is going to be done at the start of each session. This way, students won’t be caught off guard every day, but will at least have a little idea of ​​what is going to be given and can relate it more easily to knowledge from other courses.

      3. Preliminary presentation

      consists of properly prepare introductory material to facilitate the acquisition process. This strategy should not be confused with that of presenting the objectives, since the previous presentation consists of introducing the content of each session by awakening the knowledge that the students already have or by preparing them for the subject to be explained. Whether through a pre-reading or a brief and insightful presentation, the process of acquiring new information can be greatly facilitated.

      4. Debates and guided discussion

      Incorporating guided debates and discussions is an essential teaching strategy in any training you want. promote freedom of opinion, critical thinking, respect and understanding of other points of view.

      Discussions should be informal exchanges of ideas and information on the topic, always under the guidance of the educator to ensure that the students do not stray from the point under discussion. During the debate, opposing positions will be presented on a certain topic, and each participant will defend their point of view with respect and tolerance, using appropriate logic, reflection and argumentation.

      It is very important that if the teacher opts for this strategy, he presents a topic that gives rise to different approaches and points of view. In addition, the teacher should play the role of director or mediator in the debate, asking a series of questions to invite his students to make their opinion known. Ideally, they should know in advance what the topic will be about, or they should have an idea of ​​what is going on., So that they can be a little prepared and argue their positions.

      It is very important that the questions raised by the debate mediator follow a logical order and that at the end of the debate a conclusion is reached. In this way, the debate will allow for organized reflection and exposure of its own arguments, stimulating critical capacity. Students they will develop better critical and reflective thinking skills, in collaborative work and better communication skills.

      5. Workshops

      The transformation of theoretical courses into workshops is a very good pedagogical strategy, useful for acquiring new knowledge in a practical and collaborative way. In the workshops, groups are created for students to present their own proposals, discuss them and carry them out, in addition to using logic and intelligently using theoretical content seen in classes. This strategy promotes the development of cognitive, procedural and attitudinal knowledge.

      The grace of this type of activity is that students learn in a context very similar to real life, in that once they are older they will no longer have access to a book or a presentation. who will tell them what to do. In front of a new situation. The best way to put creativity and intelligence into practice is through this teaching strategy, empowering them to think innovatively when faced with a situation they have never encountered before.

      6. Practical courses

      Although they may look like workshops, they are not. workshops they invite students to explore by themselves how to do things, Discuss what to do with each other and implement various activities. Instead, practical lessons are the organizational modality in which activities directly related to theory are developed, i.e. the practical representation of what the teacher has already explained in class or what appears in the book.

      It is a question of teaching by practical examples the basic and procedural skills related to the studied subject. This type of strategy is ideal for topics and other topics that have a strong practical component, Such as computer science, biology, chemistry or physics. Hands-on lessons can be developed in special classrooms such as the lab or computer room.

      7. Problem solving

      Problem solving is put into practice theoretical knowledge which can only be adequately acquired through exercises in which formulas, algorithms or routines are applied. This strategy, also classic, of being used correctly makes it possible to arouse the interest of the pupils by seeing how problems of all kinds are solved.

      The exercises can have one or more solutions known to the teacher, the main intention being to apply what has been learned to reinforce knowledge about the theoretical contents. It is very important that the teacher is attentive to how the students are doing it, To detect possible procedural errors and prevent them from repeating over and over again. This strategy is fundamental in subjects such as mathematics, chemistry and physics.

      8. Cooperative learning

      Co-operative or peer learning is a form of educational organization that involves forming small groups in which its members encourage the learning of others, collaborate and share what they know. Group members interact with each other, that those who have learned the content explain it best in a more pleasant way and in a language more accessible to those who have problems.

      In addition, socio-affective and intellectual skills are also worked on, because explaining what has just been learned requires the implementation of a better ability to organize information, by explaining empathically to those who have the knowledge. more difficulties. It is through all of this that not only the content of the classroom is acquired, but also more prosocial values ​​and attitudes.

      9. Educational simulation

      Educational simulation is a strategy in which students are asked to represent a context or stage a situation.

      like that, students have to let go of their own personality and identity for a moment, acquiring the one they are to represent. This allows them to have a better understanding of characteristics, for example, of professions, ethnic groups, injustices or everyday situations since, in representing them, they have to put themselves on paper and act as if they really are someone. one else.

      It can be seen as a kind of game and sort of. Students should assume their role by acting creatively and openly based on what they had to portray or how they think the person they should have portrayed behaves. In the educational simulation, we have role-playing games, sociodramas and psychodrama.

      10. Interrupted questions

      The interspersed questions are inserted in the teaching situation or in the reading of a text, with the intention of maintaining the students’ attention and promoting practice and obtaining relevant information.

      These questions are productive, because it is from them that one can know the degree of involvement and, at the same time, the understanding of the pupils. With them it is possible to bring to light the knowledge latent in the mind of the individual which might not have occurred to him before letting it know because he just didn’t remember. This gives him clues to remember what he might know.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Anita, W. (2006). Educational psychology. Mexico, DF, Mexico: Pearson.
      • Román, FG (2006). New alternatives to learning and teaching (ed.). Mexico, DF, Mexico: Trillas.
      • Díaz Barriga, F., Teaching strategies for meaningful learning. Trillas (1997), Mexico.
      • Ferreiro, E. (2006) Piaget-Vigotsky: Contributions to rethinking the debate. Paidós Educador, Mexico.
      • Pou, JI (1989) Acquisition of learning strategies. Educational notebooks.
      • Weinstein, CE and Underwood, VL (1985) Learning strategies: how to learn.

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