Some people think there is only one way to learn.
Surely many, when we think of learning, imagine someone studying or learning from memory. however, there are different types of learning with very different characteristics from each other. In today’s article we will review and explain them.
Psychology and learning
Learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, And humans could not adapt to change without this process.
Psychology has been interested in this phenomenon for several decades and many authors have provided valuable information on what this learning is and how it is constructed. Ivan Pavlov, John Watson or Albert Bandura are clear examples of this marked interest.
If you are interested in learning more about the contribution of psychology to learning, we recommend that you read the following articles:
Educational psychology: definition, concepts and theories
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Learning
Sociocultural theory of Lev Vygotsky
Piaget vs Vygotsky: similarities and differences between their theories
The different types of learning
Over the years, the studies of many of these researchers have enabled us to decipher how our memory works and how observation or experience influences the way we build knowledge and change the way we act.
But, In what ways can you learn? What types of learning are there? Here’s how.
1. Implicit learning
Implicit learning refers to a type of learning that consists of generally unintentional learning. and where the learner is unaware of what is being learned.
The result of this learning is the automatic execution of motor behavior. The truth is, a lot of the things we learn happen without knowing it, for example, talking or walking. Implicit learning was the first to exist and was the key to our survival. We always learn without realizing it.
2. Explicit learning
Explicit learning is characterized by the fact that the learner intends to learn and is aware of what he is learning..
For example, this type of learning allows us to acquire information about people, places and objects. This is why this way of learning requires a sustained and selective attention on the most evolved area of our brain, that is to say, it requires the activation of the prefrontal lobes.
3. Associative learning
It is a process by which an individual learns the association between two stimuli or a stimulus and a behavior. One of the great theorists of this type of learning was Ivan Pavlov, who devoted part of his life to the study of classical conditioning, a type of associative learning.
- You can read more about this type of learning in our article: “Classical conditioning and its most important experiences”
4. Non-associative learning (habituation and awareness)
Non-associative learning is a type of learning based on a change in our response to a stimulus that occurs continuously and repeatedly.. For example. when someone lives near a nightclub, they may initially be annoyed by the noise. Over time, after prolonged exposure to this stimulus, you will no longer notice the noise pollution, as you will get used to the noise.
In non-associative learning, we find two phenomena: habituation and awareness.
- To learn more, visit our article: “Habituation: a key process in pre-associative learning”
5. Meaningful learning
This type of learning is characterized by the fact that the individual collects information, selects it, organizes it and establishes relations with the knowledge which he already possessed before.. In other words, it’s when a person associates new information with what they already have.
- You can read more about meaningful learning by clicking here
6. Cooperative learning
Cooperative learning is a type of learning that allows each student to learn not only, but alongside their peers..
Therefore, it usually takes place in classrooms of many schools, and student groups usually do not exceed five members. The teacher is the one who forms and guides groups, directs the show and distributes roles and functions.
7. Collaborative learning
Collaborative learning is similar to cooperative learning. However, the first differs from the second in the degree of freedom with which the groups are formed and operate.
In this type of learning, it is the teachers or educators who come up with a topic or problem and the students decide how to approach it.
8. Emotional learning
Emotional learning means getting to know and deal with emotions more effectively. This learning brings many benefits at the mental and psychological level, because it positively influences our well-being, improves interpersonal relationships, promotes personal development and empowers us.
9. Learning by observation
This type of learning is also called proxy, imitation or modeling learning **** o, And is based on a social situation in which at least two individuals participate: the model (the person from whom it is learned) and the subject who observes this behavior, and learns it.
10. Experiential learning
Experiential learning is the learning that results from experience, As indicated by his name.
It’s a very powerful way to learn. In fact, when we speak of learning from mistakes, we are referring to the learning produced by one’s own experience. However, the experience can have different consequences for each individual, as not everyone will perceive the facts in the same way. What takes us from simple experience to learning is self-reflection.
11. Learn by discovery
This learning refers to active learning, In which the person instead of passively learning the content, discovers, narrates and rearranges the concepts to adapt them to their cognitive scheme. One of the great theorists of this type of learning is Jerome Bruner.
12. Learning memory
Learning from memory means learning and fixing in memory different concepts without understanding what they meanSo, it does not perform service process. It is a type of learning which is carried out as a mechanical and repetitive action.
13. Responsive learning
With this type of learning called receptive learning, the person receives the content to be internalized.
It is a kind of imposed passive learning. In the classroom, this happens when the student, especially because of the teacher’s explanation, printed material or audiovisual information, only needs to understand the content in order to reproduce it.
- Arias Gómez, DH (2005) Teaching and learning of the social sciences: a didactic proposition. Bogota. Cooperativa Editorial Magisteri.
- Farnham-Diggory, S (2004) Learning disabilities. Madrid. Morata editions.
- Hoppenstead, FC; Izhikevich, EM (1997) Weakly Connected Neural Networks. New York. Springer-Verlag.