The 18 types of education: classification and characteristics

Education is a process that facilitates the learning of knowledge, skills, values ​​or attitudes. Education takes place in different contexts, can be presented in different formats or forms and can vary in content, but the goal is always the same.

    Types of education

    In this article you can find the different types of teaching. However, it should be noted that while education is a universal concept, regulated education may vary from country to country. In addition, each cultural context contributes to differences in the way of educating, so in each of these categories there can be many nuances.

    Having said that, the different types of education are as follows.

    According to the context

    Depending on the context in which the education is provided, It can be: formal, non-formal and informal.

    1. Formal education (regulated)

    Formal education is regulated education. It is taught in schools and has three characteristics: it is regulated, it is intentional and it is planned. What does it mean? Formal education is regulated by law, there is an intention behind the educational act, Which involves training people professionally, and is expected because it follows an order that we will see later. Certificates or diplomas are issued after having passed the various stages.

    2. Non-formal education

    It is a type of education which is intentional and organized, but which is outside the formal realmSo there is no law and it is not regulated by the government sphere. They can be recognized by certificates, but they have no professional value.

    3. Informal education

    Informal education is given without any intention and continues throughout life. This happens in the social realm, for example, when parents educate their child about values. It is the one that has been the most important in historical terms, because the formal has only recently existed.

    It is therefore one of the types of education that is given constantly throughout life, even in situations where one is not aware of it.

    By age and level of education (formal education)

    Formal education follows a series of stages which must be gradually overcome. Education in Spain is governed by the LOMCE (Organic Law for the Improvement of the Quality of Education) and is compulsory until the age of 16. Primary education (EP) and compulsory secondary education (ESO) constitute Spanish basic education.

    4. Early childhood education

    Early childhood education is not compulsory and ranges from 0 to 6 years. It is also known as preschool and occurs when children go to nursery or kindergarten. It is also called P3, P4, P5. It is of great importance because it involves the contact of many children with the education system.

    5. Primary education

    The next step is primary education, ranging from 6 to 12 years old. It is compulsory and therefore free, with the exception of books and school supplies.

    6. Secondary education

    This stage goes from 12 to 16 years old and is mandatory. It consists of 4 courses and progresses in the learning of mathematics, languages ​​and general culture. In turn, it provides access to more developed types of learning.

    7. Upper secondary education

    It is also known as post-compulsory secondary education and includes the baccalaureate and intermediate vocational training. He has a more profession-oriented approach and practical and specific knowledge.

    8. Higher education

    This stage represents higher vocational training and university studies.

      9. Postgraduate education

      This stage includes training carried out after university and includes postgraduate, master’s and doctoral degrees. It is considered that specialization learning is carried out there.

        According to the format

        Depending on how the education is presented it can be: online, face to face or semi-face to face

        10. Online education (distance)

        Online or online education has gained ground in recent years because it is a practical alternative for people who do not have much time or who live far from the place where the courses are given.

        This type of teaching is useful thanks to its many advantages, but also has its disadvantages. Discover the advantages and disadvantages of this type of training in our article: “Online training: 7 advantages and 7 disadvantages of online learning”

        11. Face-to-face education

        Face-to-face education is delivered in classrooms and attendance is usually compulsory. This is the classic format of education.

        12. Part-time education

        Part-time education combines the two types of education above. Therefore, in addition to face-to-face lessons, online activities are also required.

        Depending on the content

        It is possible to educate in skills, knowledge, values ​​…

        13. Physical education

        Physical education is a type of education that focuses on educating people about how, when and why physical activity is necessary. It generally combines both theoretical aspects (anatomy, sports periodization, etc.) with physical and sports practice.

          14. Emotional education

          This type of education is linked to emotional intelligence. Emotional learning is closely linked to occupational health and improved productivity. Some aspects of emotional education include: emotional self-knowledge, emotional regulation and control, and knowing how to recognize the emotions of others.

          • Recommended text: “The 10 benefits of emotional intelligence”

          15. Education in values

          Values ​​education is not only necessary for coexistence with other people, but values ​​decisively influence how we interpret events and, therefore, our emotional health. Education in values ​​includes moral education.

          16. Intellectual education

          Intellectual education aims for students to improve their cognitive skills, memory, reasoning and critical thinking. Regulated education is based on this type of education.

          • You might be interested in “The 12 Types of Intelligence: What Do You Have?”

          17. Social education

          In addition to being an increasingly recognized profession, social education is a type of education that encourages the development of sociability and social circulation and cultural and social promotion.

          18. Special education

          Special education is that which is intended for people with special educational needs, for example for the intellectually gifted or for mental, physical or sensory disabilities.

          Bibliographical references:

          • Delors, J. (1996). The four pillars of education. Mexico: The UNESCO courier, p. 91-103.
          • May, S .; Aikman, S. (2003). Indigenous education: addressing current issues and developments. Comparative education. 39 (2): 139-145.

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