Education and learning are common concepts that are relatively easy to identify and that we often see reflected in our daily lives and in almost everything we do. However, understanding what learning means and what it should seek to inculcate in formal and informal education (especially in children and the developing world), as well as how to do it, is more complex than it is. does not appear.
The different ways of seeing education have caused that throughout history they have arisen and apply different pedagogical models. In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the main models in this regard.
The main educational models
There are many ways to conceptualize learning, each with different implications depending on the practical effects of that view. Many ideas on how it works or how the educational process should be conducted they were developed and constituted as a more or less solid educational model.
These models are the representation of the set of relations which make it possible to explain a concrete phenomenon, in this case learning. Having an educational model not only allows us to have an explanation in this regard, but also to develop a series of guidelines that lead us to educate and promote certain aspects depending on the type of model chosen. There are many educational models, including the ones we have presented to you below.
1. Traditional model
The traditional educational model, the most used throughout history, proposes that the role of education be to transmit a body of knowledge. In this relationship between the pupil, the educator and the content, the student is only a passive recipient, absorbing the content that the educator pours out. The main role falls to the educator, who will be the active agent.
This type of model proposes a methodology based on the memory retention of information, based on the continuous repetition of tasks and without requiring an adjustment which makes it possible to give meaning to the material learned.
Likewise, the level of achievement of learning through the product of the educational process will be assessed, qualifying the student in a function capable of reproducing the information transmitted. Great importance is given to the concept of discipline, be the teacher an authority figure, And knowledge is transmitted without critical thinking and by accepting what is transmitted as true. It is based on imitation and ethical and moral development.
2. Behavioral model
The behavioral pedagogical model also considers that the role of education is that of the transmission of knowledge, seeing it as a means of generating the accumulation of learning. It is based on the behaviorist paradigm in its operational aspect, proposing that each stimulus be followed by its response and the repetition of this is determined by the possible consequences of this response. At the educational level, the objective is to learn by modeling behavior, by fixing information by reinforcement.
The role of the student in this paradigm is also passive, although it becomes the main focus of attention. The teacher is always above the pupil, in an active role in which he emits the situations and the information which serve as stimulus. The use of the memoristic and imamitivo-observational methodology abounds. Procedures and technical skills are generally well learned within the framework of this methodology at the procedural level, view learning as behavior change.
It works through a summative assessment that takes into account expected levels of behavior and analysis of products developed throughout the assessment (such as exams).
3. Romantic / naturalistic / experiential model
The romantic model is part of a humanist ideology that seeks to consider the educator as a protagonist and an active part of learning and centralized in the inner world of the child. It is based on the premise of nondirectiveness and maximum authenticity and freedom, assuming the existence of sufficient internal capacities on the part of the learner to be functional in his life and looking for a methodology of natural and spontaneous learning.
Within the framework of this model, it is promoted that the development of minors must be natural, spontaneous and free, focus learning on free experience and the interests of the child, Being only the educator a possible help for this one in case of need. The important thing is that the child develops his internal faculties flexibly. It is not theoretical but experiential: it is learned by doing.
In this model, it is proposed that the subject it should not be evaluated, compared or classified, Noting the importance of being able to learn freely without interference. At most, a qualitative evaluation is proposed, leaving aside the quantification to observe the evolution of the subject.
4. Cognitive / developmental model
Based on the Piagetian conception of development, this model differs from the previous ones in that its main objective is not to conform to the curriculum, but to contribute and shape the subject. in order to acquire sufficient cognitive skills to be independent, Independent and able to learn on his own. Education is experienced as a gradual process in which human cognitive structures are altered, changes which can indirectly alter behavior.
The teacher’s role is to assess the level of cognitive development and to guide the students so that they acquire the ability to make sense of what has been learned. It is a facilitator by stimulating the development of the learner, the teacher interaction being two-way student. It’s about generating experiences and areas in which you can grow, Qualitatively assess the learning topic.
5. Educational-constructivist model
The constructivist educational model is one of the most used and accepted today. Based on the above in authors such as Piaget, but also with the contributions of other eminent authors such as Vygotsky, this model focuses its attention on the student as the main protagonist of the educational process, being an essential active element in learning.
In this model, the teacher-student-content triad is viewed as a set of elements that interact bidirectionally with each other. We try so that the student can gradually build up a series of meanings, Shared with the teacher and the rest of society, based on the teacher’s content and advice.
A fundamental element of this perspective is that the learner can ascribe meaning to the material learned and also to the learning process itself, with the teacher acting as a learning guide and taking into account the need for provide assistance tailored to the needs of the learner.
This is to optimize the capabilities of it as much as possible, so that it is close to the maximum potential level instead of being limited to its actual current level (i.e. it reaches the level to which it can reach with help). Control is gradually transferred to the student as he dominates the learning, so as to obtain greater autonomy and capacity for self-management.
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