Human intelligence has been an important topic of discussion in the field of psychology. And, without a doubt, one of the most important concepts is that of multiple intelligences, A theoretical model proposed by Howard Gardner.
For a long time, we spoke of unitary intelligence; however, Gardner’s proposal gave a twist to the traditional belief in human intelligence, and the multiple intelligences model emerged as an alternative to the hitherto dominant paradigm.
A theory that changed the course of education
Howard Gardner, presented his theory to the world with his book Structures of the Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, a work which expresses the idea that intelligence is not unitary, but there are many nuances to define this construction. . Although the first edition of this text was published in 1983, it was not until 1987 that it appeared in Spanish.
For Gardner, intelligence is too abstract a construction to speak of a single one, because it is possible to find cases of people who are very qualified in some mental tasks and very poor in others: Geniuses of musical composition or movement of their body to dance, but not skilled in mathematics, for example. This is why psychologists have taken a great interest in this subject and today there are different conceptions about cognition and higher psychological processes.
According to the theory of multiple intelligences, we can talk about the following types of intelligence.
- linguistic intelligence: It is the ability to master both written and spoken language.
- Logical-mathematical intelligence: It is the ability to reason logically and the ability to solve mathematical problems.
- spatial intelligence: It is the ability to observe objects from different perspectives, just like the world, and it is the ability to manipulate mental images and create them to solve problems.
- musical intelligence: It is the ability to create musical pieces or to play music.
- bodily intelligence: Ability to move your body and coordinate its movements.
- intrapersonal intelligence: It is the ability to know and manage one’s own emotions and thoughts.
- interpersonal intelligence: It is the ability to relate to others.
- naturalistic intelligence: It is the sensitivity that an individual has towards the natural world.
Benefits of multiple intelligences in the classroom
Multiple intelligences have changed the educational landscape and according to Gardner, they bring a number of benefits to the classroom.
1. Motivate students
One of the advantages of this intelligence model is that contributes to the development of his talents by each child or student. It is essential for them to feel motivated on a daily basis. For example, if a child is good with music, with this model it is possible to detect him and help him develop his great passion.
2. Personalize the learning
Howard Gardner’s theory is that each student has unique characteristics, What sets you apart from others. If we can find out what each child can bring and what is good, we can grow them and encourage their learning.
3. It offers a more complete learning
This learning model is much more complete than the traditional model. Since he has a broader view of intelligence, promotes the acquisition of a wide range of skills by students.
4. Teach to learn
Students learn differently creative strategies and tools that help them develop their talents on their own.
5. Strengthen your skills
It is a more complete model in which different types of skills can be integrated. Therefore, students develop the skills in which they excel.
6. Promotes educational innovation
This model breaks with the classic teaching model and encourages creativity. At the same time, in him, the most innovative educational tools have their place.
7. Practical application
Because the student develops what really motivates them and what stands out, they are more likely to be able to apply it in their future.
8. More precision in the evaluation
This model makes it possible to know and develop these strengths and weaknesses of each student, so that you get a more precise view of how each is and what needs to be done to stimulate their learning.