In educational psychology, many theories are known that attempt to explain how students learn. Here we will discover Walberg’s educational productivity model., Who tries to determine what factors influence student performance or school performance, and in what way.
Depending on the model, there are 4 fundamental variables in the learning process that influence the student’s final performance. Let’s find out what they are and what each one consists of.
Walberg’s educational productivity model
Walberg’s educational productivity model was developed in 1981 and refined in 1984. It is based on cognitive learning theory which understands the student learning process as a production process.
It uses various institutional, academic, demographic and / or economic factors as inputs, and as outputs the student’s academic performance or the completion of a certain subject.
For Walberg, education productivity is the extent to which learning increases while costs are minimized.
Walberg’s educational productivity model consists of four basic components, which interact with each other to explain student performance. Thus, these 4 central elements combine and influence each other, to determine the final performance of the student. If the student has favorable skills and a suitable and stimulating environment, learning can be positive in terms of attitudes, behaviors and knowledge.
1. Aptitude of the pupil
The aptitude of the students is one of the central factors of the model. This attitude consists of 3 basic elements, which are:
1.1. The capacity or “quantity” of physical form
This includes cognition and knowledge. This would be the student’s previous performance.
It implies wanting to do something. It is also called self-concept and is defined by personality tests; it would be the student’s willingness to persevere intensely in learning tasks.
1.3. The level of development
It consists of a development, pupil’s age or stage of maturation to integrate certain learning
On the other hand, within the student variables, the cognitive variables will be very relevant for the previous performance. In this line, Walberg stands out for fitness student’s IQ as a variable closely related to performance.
2. Learning environment
The environment in which the student learns will influence learning. We can differentiate between different types of environment: home (closer and more intimate), friends, media (e.g. television), classmates, classroom climate and school, etc. . The last two will be the most important when it comes to paying attention.
Walberg stands out from the atmosphere homework (which needs to be assessed), classroom and home environment or morale as variables that particularly influence performance.
It consists of acquiring new knowledge, and it can be of different types: affective, behavioral and cognitive learning.
Learning will be greater with a cooperative and goal-oriented environment. Outraged, an environment that provides stimulation and a teacher with good teaching techniques these will also be variables that will stimulate learning.
This will vary in terms of quantity and quality (the higher the quantity and quality, the better the student’s performance is likely to be).
Quantity is the time that students devote to learning, and quality is inherent in the teaching experience, which includes methodological (psychological) and curricular (content) aspects.
Well-planned and organized teaching will promote learning and performance, As well as the existence of tutorials and feedback from teachers. On the other hand, it will also be positive that the student devotes effort and enough time to the task.
The influence of each component
According to Walberg’s education productivity model, in terms of importance, the most important element will be the classroom climate (In the environment), monitoring of the student’s capacity and the quality of teaching.
On the other hand, we must not forget other elements which are also very important for the performance (albeit inferior), such as the house, the amount of teaching and the motivation of the students.
Following the publication of Walberg’s educational productivity model, other authors (Fraser, Walberg, Welch and Hattie) attempted in 1987 to determine the influence and the weight of the different components of the model on final performance. students.
This is how Hattie’s model of school learning was born., Which includes among the determining variables of performance: social factors, school, teacher and teaching. In turn, in the model, these variables are grouped into more specific components.
- Walberg, HJ A psychological theory of educational productivity. (nineteen eighty one). A: EH. Farley and N. Gordon (Eds.), Psychology and Education: State of the Union. Berkeley, Calif .: McCutchan, 4, 81-108.
- López, I. (2009). Assessment of the effect of critical variables on school learning. Studies in Education, 16, 55-78.
- Martí, CP (2012). Analysis of factors influencing the academic performance of financial accounting students through binary choice models. RBGN – Brazilian Journal of Business Management, 14 (45), 379-399.