The 14 most important types of addiction

There are as many addictions as there are colors and tastes in this vast world. Some are better known than others, especially those about substance abuse.

However, addictions are not limited to the consumption of chemicals that can cause harm to the person who ingests them, and there are also behaviors that are harmful to both the person and their immediate environment.

Let’s take a look at the three main types of addiction, In addition to some significant examples for each of them.

    Types of dependencies

    The world of addictions is very large and varied. Practically you can be addicted to almost anything, as long as it is done in such a way that the person gets to the point that loses control of the addictive behavior in question.

    Drug addictions are generally classified into two groups, depending on whether the problematic behavior is related to the use of a substance, both legal and illegal, or if, on the contrary, the problem is related to one’s own behavior.

    However, and although this is the most common classification, in this article we will also talk about other types of addictions, which are very important in the interaction with other people and which can sometimes be the cause the development of certain toxic relationships: emotional addictions.

    Substance dependence

    Of all the addictions, the best known are usually those related to substance use. The legality and severity of the effects of the drug itself can vary widely., Having practically all kinds. Let’s look at some of them.

    1. Alcohol

    Alcoholism is one of the most common addictions around the world because alcohol is a legal substance, but its effects on health are very serious. In fact, it has been argued that alcoholism has a greater weight in the development of cancer than tobacco.

    In addition to health problems, alcohol encourages more risky and dangerous behavior for oneself and for others. In many cases, the consumption of this substance is behind a crime.

    The problem with this substance is not only that it is inherently dangerous, but most societies have widely accepted its consumption, Minimize alcoholism and treat it as if it were a socially desirable practice.

    However, despite the strong pressure to consume alcohol, its effects are noticeable both physically, as well as problems with balance and hangovers, as well as cognitive and psychological, as well as emotional instability, l aggressiveness and a reduced capacity to react.

    In addition, abstinence syndrome from this substance can be fatal, so people who suffer from alcoholism, in addition to the harmful effects of addiction, find it difficult to overcome it.

      2. Nicotine

      The substance that causes tobacco addiction is nicotine. Tobacco, like alcohol, is legal, but there seems to be a greater social awareness of its harmful effects.

      In fact, in most countries the distribution of tobacco advertisements has been banned, while alcohol brand advertisements continue to be disseminated as if they were fruit juice.

      Nicotine is a substance that dramatically changes the way the brain works, Cause addiction. Over time, if the person does not smoke their coveted cigarette, they begin to experience discomfort in the form of anxiety and nervousness.

      Tobacco smoke is responsible for respiratory diseases, such as cancer of the lungs and larynx, as well as heart problems such as heart attacks and strokes.

      It should be noted that the “ healthy ” alternative to traditional tobacco, vapeo, has proven to be a very ineffective substitute, and many health departments are considering regulating its consumption as a potentially addictive practice.

      3. Psychotropic drugs

      Getting psychotropic drugs is not as easy as buying a box of aspirin, as many of them need a psychiatric prescription in order to be able to buy them.

      However, this restriction does not prevent people, both psychiatric patients and those without the need to take psychotropic drugs, from having developed an addiction to this type of substance. Each psychotropic drug has a different profile and can cause a wide variety of side effects. depending on the dose and type of medication involved.

      Tolerance to psychotropic drugs is built up very quickly, forcing the person to consume a higher dose to notice the desired effects.

      4. Caffeine

      In recent years, especially in the field of psychology, there has been a lot of debate about whether substance abuse with caffeine should be consumed as a true addiction.

      Most addictions have negative repercussions both for the individual who suffers from them and for their immediate environment, however, the harmful effects of drinking too much coffee or tea have been much discussed.

      However, caffeine abuse is considered addictive, Because it can affect the health level of the person who cannot take off from the coffee maker.

      An example of this would be people who, knowing that caffeine is arousing and produces insomnia, decide to have coffee or tea at the wrong time, knowing that then they will not be able to sleep.

      Sleeping well is the key to regaining energy and having a euthymic mood. If you cannot fall asleep the next day you will be tired and cranky, you will not work effectively, and we have a bad relationship with your loved ones.

      5. Opiates

      Among opiates, heroin is probably the best known.

      Consumption of this substance causes serious health problems, especially for the heart and the nervous, digestive and respiratory systems.

      6. Steroids

      steroids these are widely used substances, especially in the world of sport. In most cases, these are synthetic variants of testosterone, used to build muscle mass quickly and with little effort.

      Abuse of these substances has various effects, some of the mildest that can be found in severe acne, although the most worrying are heart problems, stroke and gynecomastia.

      7. Cannabis

      Of all illegal drugs, cannabis is one of the most widely usedEspecially because it can be grown in any garden, although the plant requires special care.

      Many myths revolve around this one, in particular that according to which a plant is and therefore “natural” must necessarily be “sure”. By this same rule of three, hemlock is also healthy, although it has the downside of being a deadly poison.

      Leaving aside the debate as to whether natural is healthier or not, it must be said that cannabis it has many adverse effects on the health of those who consume it, Either in the form of “leeks” or as an ingredient in pastries such as brownies or herb cakes.

      It has been shown to have cognitive repercussions, impairing intelligence, memory and the ability to speak fluently. It is linked to the development of mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

      It should be noted, however, that it has therapeutic effects and is taken, by prescription, for conditions such as glaucoma, chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, and anxiety.

      behavioral addictions

      Addictions aren’t the only ones where a certain substance is abused. Engaging in behaviors that are uncontrolled and which can have a negative impact on a person’s performance are also considered addictive behaviors. Let’s look at the main behaviors that can lead to addictions.

      8. Pornography and sex

      Sex is a basic human need, however, it becomes an issue when a large part of the time is devoted to this activity, Either in company or alone, using pornography to achieve sexual arousal.

      Pornography, in fact, is material that can become extremely addicting, as it’s all about creating arousal without having to interact with other people.

      This can involve a number of issues such as unwanted effects. Among them, and especially because of the hypersexualization that is made of people in pornographic videos and magazines, the person becomes incapable of being aroused with “normal” people.

      These problems arise during real sex with another person, causing them to go to bed. symptoms such as anorgasmia and erectile dysfunction. He is also socially isolated by not making an effort to have sex.

      9. Game

      Gambling addiction, whether in the form of sports betting, poker, roulette, slots or any other means of withdrawing money by chance, Becomes a serious problem in the face of the government’s passivity despite its more than obvious boom.

      Today, society is not yet sufficiently aware of the problem, seeing it only as a mere hobby, not being shocked to see how the television broadcasts advertisements that encourage pathological gambling without causing people to be outraged. .

      Gambling addiction is a serious disorder, which can lead to the loss of valuable time that could be spent much more productively spending huge sums of money, debts can be generated and not reach the end of the month.

      The game exploits a phenomenon which in psychology is called intermittent reinforcement, which implies that only the desired reward is received a relatively small number of times and without a regular pattern.

      As the prize is expected to be received, the person does not stop playing, entering a cycle that may not end.

        10. Food

        Food is a basic need. Every human being needs food, because if he does not have it, he will starve. The problem comes when it turns into something that controls our lives, Causing you to completely lose control of when to feed.

        Food addiction is the most prominent problem in eating disorders, especially binge eating disorder, where the person loses control and ingests huge amounts of food, feeling terribly sick afterward.

        The most serious consequence of food addiction is, in particular, obesitySomething that, over the past few decades, has become the real epidemic in the Western world.

        Other problems linked to bad eating habits are diabetes, gastrointestinal problems, mobility problems and also cancer.

        11. New technologies

        New technologies have invaded virtually every aspect of life as we know it. Cell phones, computers, video game consoles, and all kinds of electronic devices can be found in virtually any situation.

        It’s no surprise that more and more people are unable to detach themselves from their devices., Because they have developed a significant dependence on these devices and need them to live their daily lives. They don’t know anything else.

        Of particular note is Internet addiction, which is particularly visible among young people. Whether documenting or playing games online, few teenagers would give them a faint if they had to go a day without being able to go online.

        It goes without saying the fault is not with the person who is addicted to it, but with the way the company itself has constituted itself in recent years. How many jobs today are not dependent on the use of the Internet or instant messaging?

        12. Shopping

        Shopping addiction, while not a well-known addictive behavior, has as its main problem that of consume huge sums of money on products and services that are not needed.

        In addition, if unnecessary items are purchased, there is a risk that the house will be occupied with unnecessary utensils, and the development of disorders such as Diogenes can be a collateral problem.

        13. Work

        In the society we live in, the culture of sacrifice in the workplace has been promoted, with the intention of making the most of the family. The problem is that work itself can become addictiveThe term “workaholic” has appeared in recent years to refer to this situation.

        If working is a necessary thing to be able to survive, the fact of giving more space to the workplace before other aspects of life such as personal relationships, childcare or investing in their own leisure activities implies a degradation. generalized standard of living.

        The advice that can be given regarding this type of situation is that things should be done with balance, and be aware of when it is necessary to stop and disconnect from work.

        emotional addictions

        These types of addictions may turn out to be the least known, but the saying that you are dependent on someone or that you are addicted to sadness is not as figurative as you might think.

        There are a lot of people who, after dating someone for a long time but just broke up, they still feel the need to be with the person they lost. That is, they are emotionally dependent on them, which can seriously affect the development of the person suffering from this particular addiction, not having enough motivation to seek a new relationship or dare to be single.

        It’s also common to find people who, although they don’t have a mood disorder such as depression, feel sad for a long time but don’t seem to be looking for a way to get over the bad trance. Either because they receive the attention of others or because they break with the emotional routine that has been established, the person cannot detach themselves from the emotion which, although adaptive, can pose problems in the long term in terms of independence.

        Bibliographical references:

        • American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
        • Belin, D .; Everitt, BJ (2008). “Cocaine-seeking habits depend on the dopamine-dependent serial connectivity that binds the ventral to the dorsal striate body.” Neuron (57): 432-441.
        • Kauer, JA, Malenka RC (2007) .. Opinions of “Synaptic Plasticity and Dependence” Nature Neuroscience (8): 844-858.
        • World Health Organization (1992). International Classification of Diseases and Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Geneva.
        • Salamone, JD (1992). Motor and sensorimotor function of the striatum and the dopaminergic complex accumbens: participation in instrumental behavioral processes. Psychopharmacology (107): 160-174.

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