Violence is part of human history. This phenomenon is as old as the first human instinct to dominate, to survive. currently we sought to conceptualize and problematize because of the various conditions that result from it. Over the past few centuries, humanity has been raped on unprecedented scales. The emergence of different hateful ideologies has stained the human timeline with blood, but there is even more behind this grim picture.
Domestic violence: definition and context
The ghost of violence is becoming more and more tangible. It crawls the streets, spreads in the media, bubbles up in workplaces, schools and homes. The number of researches in this regard, typical of psychology professionals and experts in the field, has increased in recent decades due to the need to generate new knowledge about its causes and consequences. It is clear that it is no longer enough to reflect on the problem, it is necessary to create psychological and social theories which prevent and correct this evil which affects the whole of society. This is why we must achieve a better understanding of reality, so complex today, by directing efforts towards relevant actions that not only prevent, but give rise to a reformulation of social paradigms around violence.
A study entitled< Démasquer la violence domestique: la relation entre faire face au stress et prolonger ou mettre fin à une idylle étourdie >>, analyzed violence and its types according to the categorization established by the World Health Organization. Health (WHO) in the private sphere and addressed 3 Variants of violence: domestic violence, domestic or conjugal violence and gender-based violence, focusing mainly on domestic violence.
According to WHO (2014), systematic violence between two or more family members is called domestic or domestic violence; Domestic violence refers to the behavior of the partner or ex-partner that causes physical, sexual or psychological harm and gender violence is that which emphasizes violence against women because of their belonging to the female sex, all and that some specialists differ from the latter and this will be detailed later.
The consequences of domestic violence
Now, what are the repercussions of acts of violence on the subjects of study? Violence, in all its expressions (psychological, physical, economic, heritage, sexual and symbolic), has observable consequences both socially and individually.
At the individual level they manifest themselves physically and psychologically. The individual level in turn has serious repercussions on the social aspect; where there are serious affections to education, economics and politics. Both individually and socially, violence directly affects the quality of life. Psychologically speaking, the quality of life is modulated by different factors such as: anxiety, depression, treatment expectations, social support and stress in its various forms.
The word stress has become so common today that its true effect has been overlooked. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), stress is defined by Baum as “…[toda] annoying emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioral changes. »When faced with a stressful situation, individuals tend to resort to certain actions that allow them to regain control of the situation and reduce stress levels; this is known as coping.
Confrontation is therefore any resource employed by the affected person to endure or cope with the stressful event; these resources can be cognitive or behavioral. The resources of the confrontation are shaped by thoughts, attitudes, omissions, reinterpretations, behaviors, etc., the individual in question can develop or adopt different types of confrontation, so it should be mentioned that not all people react differently to certain situations.
The emergence of stress in domestic violence: a study
The studies that allow us to know how to cope with stress in men and women who suffer from domestic violence are limited. The study of confrontation and its styles will allow us to decipher other methods that serve as prevention or guidance in dealing with domestic violence. For that, the cited study aimed to identify the frequency of stress coping styles and strategies employed by men and women victims of domestic violence; as well as the relationship that exists between them and the permanence or end of the relationship.
Among the nameless and invisible voices still present, there were 5 subjects that made up the case studies; 3 female and 2 male. Initially, there were more subjects who had already given their consent to be interviewed, but when dealing with the questions in the questionnaires, they chose not to participate. Some preferred not to participate, asked for a little time just to tell their story, which were not included in the study for not having completed the other instruments.
Nuance: women and men can suffer from domestic violence
It should also be noted that if statistically women are those who suffer the most from violence in all its fields, for this study the man was also included for the importance that this represents for the search for greater equity. between the sexes in society. Indeed, one cannot speak of equity between the sexes when the attention is diverted from one or the other sex, leaving in the invisibility the violence against the man only because of his masculine condition. Domestic violence, whether male to female, female to male, male to male or female to female, is reprehensible and cannot have its place in society.
Study subjects were selected for their availability in terms of gender, orientation, age and education. In terms of age, they were in a range of 25 to 55 years old. All of them are active in their work and their education levels range from average to postgraduate. The above has enabled research to highlight the fact that there are a variety of factors that influence domestic violence, including social and cultural factors.
It is also important to note that when talking about violence, the mind tends to invoke or visualize it graphically with broken lips and purple eyelids, but not only based on the results of this research but also based on the results of this research. results. Published by INEGI in ENDIREH 2011, of the four types of violence, the most representative is emotional or psychological because of its high incidence rates. It is due to the daily life with which psychological violence occurs, which has become naturalized, in turn minimizing the risks incurred, which were mentioned above and which allow progress to be made between the different phases of violence.
In the ENDIREH questionnaire used for the interview, a section titled Opinion on Gender Roles was found, which mainly refers to the most common stereotypes related to women and men. In the results of this section, 100% of the respondents concluded that they did not agree that the woman should obey everything she is told, that the man should take responsibility for everything. responsibility for household expenses and in which it is the woman’s obligation to have sex with. his partner. In addition, 100% of the subjects agreed that the custody of the children should be shared as a couple and in the capacity of the woman to work and earn money. This allows us to see that absolutely all respondents sought a politically correct answer by avoiding providing an answer that corresponded to their true opinion or reality. In this case, it is recommended that ENDIREH rethink the questions in this section. For the purposes of this research, it was not necessary to develop another instrument to replace this section because these data were considered secondary and were not taken into account for validation or validation. refutation of the premises of the research since gender stereotypes are not part of the objects of Study.
Another important fact, however, concern was found during the interview when study subjects expressed dissatisfaction with the care received when they sought help from the appropriate authorities and members of their community. family. Both men and women said that when they applied for child support they were either turned down or the process was extremely long.
In terms of coping strategies and styles, the two sexes had almost similar proportions in terms of self-responsibility strategies, with only 2 points of difference between their averages. That means men and women have a similar tendency to blame each other for acts of violence against them. These strategies are very dangerous as they to some extent justify domestic violence by allowing the victim to stoically endure abuse. At the other extreme are the acceptance and ventilation strategies, which show a difference of 3.4 and 3 points respectively, with men being the ones who used the most such resources.
In summary, from the results obtained, it can be concluded that subjects, both men and women, who are victims of domestic violence generally use both problem-oriented and emotion-oriented coping styles, but there is there is a difference in the frequency of strategies. employed between men and women, observing a greater recurrence of problem-centered styles on the part of women as well as a greater incidence of emotion-centered styles in men. This means that women have greater recourse to actively combat domestic violence, seeking to eliminate or mitigate the effects of violence and the violence itself; while the man confronts him inactive and with rather emotional strategies and his interpretation of the problem.
The fact that man has had greater reliance on problem-centered coping styles suggests that media coverage of stereotypes and the role of man limit him in coping passively with stress, compared to women, where day after day mistreatment by her partner is less accepted.
Regarding the published results on the coping styles used by the study subjects, it was observed that people who decide to stay in an abusive relationship have a wider repertoire of strategies that allow them to cope with the problem, Compared to those who decided to end the relationship. It was also shown that among the subjects studied, those who used more resources as part of the problem-management style were more likely to end their relationship, as shown in the following table.
According to Díaz-Aguado, psychology has the faculty and the duty to play an important role in the fight against violence. One of the essential factors is its representation, that is to say “the representation that a person or a city has of violence and of its possible victims, plays a determining role in the risk of violence. exercise it ”(Diaz -Aguado, 1999, p. 415). This is why this study sought to show that domestic violence is not inevitable. Exposing the multiple faces of domestic violence as well as the coping styles and strategies employed by victims is an attempt to reconfigure the current portrayal of domestic violence. At the beginning, there is nothing more to say that the path against violence is long and narrow, but every step is not a step in vain.