The 7 types of gender violence (and their characteristics)

Woman arrives at hospital with series of injuries. Bruising to the eye, burns, scratching back, broken wrist, damage to the genital tract, history of hospital visits for suspected falls … gender-based violence is suspected.

This type of violence is a problem that persists in today’s society and has claimed the lives of many people, murdered at the hands of their partners. But gender-based violence cannot be reduced to physical assault. There are many types of gender-based violence, Which distorts and undermines the situation of a person because of his gender.

The concept of gender violence

Gender-based violence (or gender-based violence, according to other sources) is understood as any type of violence carried out in violation of a person’s physical, mental or relationship well-being because of their sex or gender identity. Aggression is used intentionally, either by physical force or for the purpose of harming, coercing, limiting or manipulating the person being abused.

This type of violence can have devastating effects on victims. Physically, they can cause serious injury that can lead to disability, coma, or even death. Psychologically, people who suffer from GBV are often unable to report, mainly for fear of possible repercussions for themselves or their loved ones, the presence of disbelief or the belief that they will not be. not supported.

It is also not uncommon for victims to feel guilty or responsible for the situation or fear causing pain to other people (for example, in the presence of children). Even, depending on the type of education received or when the victim may have been manipulated, one may come to think that this is normal behavior and / or that they feel deserving.

the causes

Usually, the aggressor party acts motivated by the desire for power and domination, and he is frequently influenced by gender stereotypes. Usually behind this lurk feelings of insecurity and low self-esteem which one tries to supplement by dominating those whom the individual considers inferior or unable to cope.

It is also possible that there is an exaggerated self-esteem with narcissistic overtones that results in one’s own rights being viewed above those of others. Instrumental abuses aimed at a specific objective can be observed in some cases. Finally, lack of empathy is a phenomenon and / or uncontrolled impulsivity can facilitate aggression.

Distinguish between types of assault

When we talk about gender violence, we usually think of situations in which aggression occurs within a couple.. The most common situation of gender-based violence is that of a man who commits a series of continuous and systematic abuses of a woman because she is a woman, whom he considers inferior or seeks to dominate.

This is why gender-based violence is often confused with gender-based or gender-based violence. However, it should not be forgotten that there are also men who experience this type of violence from their partner. Furthermore, while gender-based violence is generally not considered to be not based on gender or gender identity, the existence of domestic violence in same-sex couples should not be forgotten. This is why today, more than gender violence, I should speak of intimate partner violence.

Types of gender-based violence

As stated above, the concept of gender-based violence includes a wide variety of attitudes and actions that can harm the person of different dimensions. After all, there are many ways to hurt a person.

Although the person is not attacked in all cases in all cases, in gender violence we can find the following types of violence.

1. Physical violence

The most visible and recognized as gender violence, Physical violence is considered to be any act in which physical harm is inflicted on the victim by direct assault.. This damage can be temporary or permanent.

This type of violence includes beating, wounds, broken bones, scratches. While they can sometimes be trivialized or seen as occurring during a discussion, pushing and shaking also falls under the category of physical violence. Physical disability can occur due to the consequences of an assault, and even depending on the level of damage caused can result in death.

2. Psychological violence

This type of violence is characterized by the fact that, although there is no aggression at the physical level, the victim is humiliated, demeaned and psychologically attacked. This attack can be direct and actively carried out in the form of insults and harassment or carried out in a more passive way, devaluing the couple without them considering that they are being assaulted.

Emotional abuse includes the presence of humiliation, threats and coercion (in some cases using the threat of physical assault on the victim or otherwise), contempt and worthlessness. Also making the person feel helpless, obligated to perform certain actions and dependent on the abuser, guilty of the situation of abuse and deserving of punishment.

As the direct assault is often not seen in the message, many victims are unaware that they are being abused and do not take action against the abuser. It can be considered that in practically all cases of gender-based violence, whatever the type and the reason, there is psychological violence.

    3. Sexual violence

    Although this can somehow be considered physical abuse sexual violence specifically refers to the types of situations in which a person is forced or coerced into engaging in sexual activity against their will, or in which sexuality is limited or imposed by another person.

    It is not necessary to have penetration or intercourse. This includes the presence of rape within the couple, forced prostitution, forced conception or abortion, genital mutilation, sexual harassment or unwanted touching, among others.

      4. Economic violence

      This type of violence is based on the reduction and deprivation of the couple’s economic resources. or their offspring as a measure of coercion, manipulation or with the intention of harming their integrity. It is also considered as such the fact of forcing to depend financially on the aggressor, by preventing the victim’s access to the labor market by threat, coercion or physical restriction.

      5. Patrimonial violence

      Usurpation of property or destruction of objects, property and property is considered to be violence against property of the victim of violence with the intention of dominating or causing psychological harm. In many ways, these assets are the result of decades of work and their destruction is a way of showing that all these efforts have been in vain. However, it should be noted that this type of assault can affect other people at the same time, especially neighbors.

      6. Social violence

      Social violence is based on limiting, controlling and inducing the social isolation of the person. The victim is separated from her family and friends, depriving her of all social support and removing her from her usual environment. Sometimes the victim is put against their environment, causing the victim or the environment to decide to go their separate ways.

      For example, attacks on the front of the house are very characteristic of this type of violence, as they leave visible signs across the world that the victim deserves to be attacked in front of everyone.

      7. Violence by proxy

      A large number of couples in whom gender-based violence occurs have children. On several occasions, the perpetrator decides to threaten, assault and even kill these children in the aim to harm their partner or ex-partner.

      This type of violence is called vicarious violence, which also includes harm to minors caused by observation of parental abuse. The psychological impact is what is sought, through control, submission and aggression towards people who are not directly involved in the heart of the conflict.

      Attention: gender violence is not only in the couple

      When we think of gender-based violence, the first thing we think of is the existence of abuse in relationships. But gender-based violence is not specific to the couple’s area, but can occur in several areas without the perpetrator being a spouse. Institutions, the family and society in general can also be places where situations of gender-based violence occur. as above.

      We must work to prevent and raise awareness among the public, educating them on different aspects such as tolerance of diversity, equal rights and opportunities and emotional education in order to avoid new situations of gender-based violence.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Durán, M. (2004). Legal-feminist analysis of the organic law on comprehensive protection measures against gender violence. Article 14. A gender perspective. Newsletter and legal analysis. Andalusian Women’s Institute.

      • Kilmartin, C; Allison, JA (2007). Male violence against women: theory, research and activism. Routledge.

      • Organic law on integral protection measures against gender violence of December 28, 2004, BOE of December 29, 2004.

      • Lorente, M. (2001). My husband hits me normal. Aggression Against Women: Realities and Myths. Ares i Mares, Editorial reviewer, Madrid.

      • Pérez, JM; Montalvo, A. (2010). Gender-based violence: analysis and approach to its causes and consequences. Gender-based violence: prevention, detection and treatment. Editorial group.

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