Brain aneurysm: causes, symptoms and prognosis

The central nervous system, which includes the brain, is an indispensable part of our anatomy.

Without it we could not survive, but neither could we think, feel, make decisions or be aware of what is happening to us; all of the characteristics that make us humans exist because we have brains that work as they should.

However, there are many diseases that can jeopardize their functioning and therefore our survival.Cerebral aneurysm is one of them.

What is a brain aneurysm?

A brain aneurysm is cerebrovascular disease in which dilation of part of a blood vessel in the brain occurs, Which inflates over time.

This pumping of this segment of the blood vessel is due to a weakening of the wall of the blood vessel, which causes the blood pressure to tighten even more, increasing the risk of the vessel rupturing and part of the brain is flooded with blood. .

Prognosis: What happens when the aneurysm breaks?

The rupture of a brain aneurysm is almost always a very serious event for the health of the person, because on the one hand the leakage of blood affects the functioning of certain parts of the brain, making them unable to function properly and killing nerve cells. , and on the other hand produces a deficit of blood supply in others, causing them to die.

Beyond these generalities, the prognosis of a broken brain aneurysm is very variableBasically, depending on its size, the area of ​​the brain affected, the general health of the person and the time that has elapsed between the rupture of the throat and the start of medical attention. In general, an average of 40% of people do not survive for 24 hours after the rupture of the brain aneurysm, and it is common for sequelae to remain in cases of recovery.

That is why urgent medical attention is needed before the first symptoms appear.

Types of brain aneurysms

Aneurysms that affect the brain can be classified according to various criteria. Here are a few.

Types of aneurysms by size

  • very small: 3 mm. the last
  • small: More than 3 mm. and less than 11 mm.
  • large: from 11 to 25 mm.
  • giants: More than 25 mm.

Types of aneurysms according to their form

  • sacular aneurysms: Pumps in the form of pumping on the wall of the tank.
  • Dissection aneurysms: The inner layer of the vessel wall is broken creating a bifurcation that separates the normal path of the mouthpiece and another that is parallel to it on the other side of the inner wall.
  • Fusiform aneurysms: In this type of aneurysm, there is no specific and very well demarcated area in which the vessel wall swells, but the gout wall expands in all directions along a relatively long segment of this one.

Causes and risk factors

Brain aneurysms can be the product of genetic root disorders or acquired diseases. The risk factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits are alcoholism, excessive consumption of foods high in fats and sugars, tobacco abuse, cocaine use and the use of certain contraceptives and anticoagulants.

Hypertension, obesity and especially atherosclerosis are also risk factors for the possible occurrence of cerebral aneurysms, associated with the weakening of the walls of the blood vessels.

Symptoms of brain aneurysm

When they are small, brain aneurysms tend not to produce any symptoms until they rupture, although the older ones can change some mental and behavioral functions before this happens, by pressing on the areas adjacent as they expand.

1. Symptoms before rupture

Some of the most common symptoms of intact aneurysms include dizziness, altered perception, loss of vision, and balance. and, in general, a weakening of certain psychological functions.

However, these symptoms can be confused with the effects of lack of sleep or fatigue and stress produced by a working day that is too intense, so that often they go unnoticed until the blood vessel breaks and causes a breakdown. hemorrhage.

2. Symptoms immediately after rupture

The person who has had a broken brain aneurysm will show symptoms immediately, suddenly feeling much weaker, and in some cases, in pain. severe changes in consciousness which may be accompanied by entry into a coma or sudden death. Usually, if consciousness is not lost, the most common signs of an aneurysm are fatigue, severe dizziness, blurred vision, and difficulty focusing attention on something.

It is also common to experience speech problems (aphasia), impaired perception and entry into a state of confusion. However, as we have seen, these symptoms depend on many factors, just like the prognosis.

treatment

The treatment of brain aneurysms is always carried out by a medical team who works directly on the affected area, so it depends largely on the area of ​​the brain or meninges that has been affected.

In any case, when cutting the hemorrhage the most commonly used techniques are to cut the weakened area of ​​the blood vessel wall, Making him stop being exposed to high blood pressure and using various techniques to redirect the blood leaks back to the bloodstream.

Bibliographical references:

  • Guglielmi G (September 2007). “History of endovascular occlusion of cerebral aneurysm: 1965-1990”. Interventional neuroradiology.
  • Lv X, Yang H, Liu P, Li Y (February 2016). “Flow bypass devices in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a meta-analysis and systematic review.” The Journal of Neuroradiology.
  • Schueler SJ, Beckett JH, Gettings DS (August 18, 2010). “Berry’s aneurysm in the brain.” freemd.

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