Brain tumor: type, classification and symptoms

All of this strange tissue that arises inside the skull cavity is called a brain tumor, although these also sometimes appear in the meninges, nerves, and in the skull itself. For obvious reasons, they are one of the main health problems affecting the nervous system, given their potential severity.

Usually, brain tumors are more common in childhood, Some tumors are more common at this stage of development, such as medulloblastomas. There are also those that occur mainly in adulthood, with meningiomas and schwannoma being distinctive of this stage.

Below we will review the main features of this type of disease, its symptoms and the most common types of brain tumors.

    Symptoms of brain tumor

    Symptoms are variable and depend largely on the size of the tumor, its location, and even how quickly it grows.

    A constant headache would be the symptom par excellence in this suffering. Other harmful effects would be the following: several cognitive or sensorimotor disorders, increased intracranial pressure generating vomiting, diplopia (double vision), birth of elliptogenic foci, etc.

    Types of brain tumors and classification

    Brain tumors can be classified in the following ways:

    1. Primary and secondary

    Primary ones occur in the brain or spinal cord and rarely produce metastases (extension of the tumor to another part of the body); although it is likely that as a result of this initial tumor new ones will appear inside the nervous system itself.

    The secondaries originate outside the nervous system and what is called brain metastasis occurs. In other words, it can occur as a result of certain cancers of the breast, lung, gastrointestinal, etc. It should be noted that this type of tumor is malignant and inoperable.

    2.infiltrators and encapsulations

    Infiltrators are distinguished by the fact that there is no limit that fixes where they start and where they end, and in the encapsulated if it is possible to better distinguish the place they occupy.

    Therefore, the former tend to be more dangerous, because as they spread they tend to deteriorate the area in which they are found.

    3. Benin and smart

    There is a scale with different degrees of hierarchy, Which lets you know when they belong on one side and when on the other. Those that are grade I are the least harmful (although similarly they present a considerable danger when removed), and those that belong to IV have the worst prognosis.

    Usually, tumors belonging to categories I and II do not generate metastases, And the survival of those who suffer from it is usually several years; while those which are III and IV cause metastasis and survival does not exceed a few / several months.

    Cancer of the nervous system: examples

    Here you can see a brief description of the different types of tumors that appear in the nervous system.

    1. Gliomas

    It is the name given to any tumor that results from 1 considerable spread of the neuroglia. They are smart.

    It is usually caused by an increase in astrocytes (thus generating astrocytomas); in some cases, oligodendrocytes (producing an effect of oligodendrocytomas) and multiform glioblastomas, also called grade IV gliomas.

      2. Meningiomas

      Tumors of non-glial origin that start in the meninges, mainly in the subarachnoid space or dura mater, are so named. They are regularly benign and have a good prognosis.

      3. Medulloblastomas

      In this way, they are called malignant type tumors which very often arise in the cerebellum of children due to the growth of the germ cells that access it or the lower part of the brainstem. It’s a bad prognosis.


      We know in this way the benign tumors that occur track Schwann cells (The main function of which is to produce the myelin which covers the axons of the peripheral nervous system). They can exist in the cranial and spinal nerves.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Antoni, PP (2010). Introduction to neuropsychology. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.

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