Dynamics: characteristics and causes of this movement disorder

There are different pathologies that affect the movement of people, but one of the most intense is adynamism.

We will dig deeper into everything related to this disorder to better understand how it develops, what are its repercussions and if there is a treatment that allows those affected to experience improvement.

    What is adynamism?

    The dynamic is a symptomatology that can be experienced by humans in which the muscles of the body lose practically all of their strengthAs a result, the sufferer has great difficulty performing any type of movement, and is even unable to perform them.

    This includes, of course, the very act of getting up and walking, so that the subject in question will spend most of the time sitting or lying down because he or she does not have the energy to adopt another posture which involves standing, that is, leaning on your own legs.

    Therefore, the condition of adynamism is presented as a symptom in a large set of alterations, the origin of which can arise from both a physical and psychological disorder. Later, we’ll dig deeper into some of them and see what the differences are between the different types.

    The important thing, and one thing to keep in mind, is that the dynamic it can present itself in several ways, depending on the underlying pathology and the characteristics of the individual. It will therefore be essential for the healthcare professional to carry out a correct assessment in order to make an appropriate diagnosis, which will allow the appropriate treatment to be applied as quickly as possible and thus ensure that the symptoms disappear as quickly as possible.

    Types of weakness

    The basic symptom of adynamism is muscle weaknessThis is what prevents the subject from performing the movements of his body. The point is, this weakness can be real or perceived, depending on the cause that is causing it.

    In this way, the real weakness of the musculature would be one in which there is an organic cause that directly affects the muscles themselves, such as injury or fiber defect, for example. It would be a case of adynamics.

    The other type of weakness would be the one perceived. In this case, the disease is not caused by a problem in the muscles, which are apparently well physiologically, but the subject would suffer from some alteration in his basal metabolism and this would make him unable to move the muscles (and, in indeed, he could not move as long as this situation lasted).

    It is important to note here that although the terminology of one of the weaknesses is said to be true, it does not mean that the other is not true, in the sense that although there is no neuromuscular dysfunction, it happens. , either at the organic level, or at the psychological level. Both are therefore real causes, although one is said to be true and the other perceived, because the nomenclature meets another criterion, as we have seen.

      the causes

      We have already anticipated that the dynamics can occur in a wide variety of diseases and, therefore, in many cases, it is a symptom of several groups of them that help a doctor to identify the origin. specific to the pathology, be able to prepare a plan of action to cure the person, or at least to achieve an improvement.

      1. Injury

      One of the causes that can motivate the lack of muscle strength is injury or trauma. What happens is that this type of event usually occurs in very localized areas, so the mobility issues would be reduced to the muscles in the affected area, unless the trauma was very severe. and does not involve a large part of the body (in an accident, for example). Therefore, this cause of dynamics is relatively easy to identify.

      2. Hormonal problem

      Certain endocrinological disorders can destabilize certain hormones of our body and cause multiple effects, some of them compatible with adynamism, as we would perceive a lack of strength during the movement, with the difficulties that this would imply. One of the most common endocrine diseases that could cause this problem is hypothyroidism.

      3. Autoimmune disease

      Autoimmune diseases are another of the main causes of adynamism, and many of these conditions, among their symptoms, include alterations in our ability to use muscles, whether due to inflammation, pain. or other causes. Very clear examples of this type of disease would be celiac disease or lupus, among others.

      4. Cancer

      Cancer is a disease that covers so many cases and ways of attacking the body, which is not surprising that some of them affect the subject’s mobility due to muscle exhaustion, so we would be faced with another possibility of generating an adynamism in the subject. .

      5. Infection

      Certain types of infection in the body that have an effect on the muscle could also lead to impaired ability of movement in the sufferer, so it could be concluded that adynamism is one of the symptoms of the disease in question. .

      6. Psychological disorders

      Although all the cases that we have seen so far correspond to organic diseases, we had previously indicated that these are not the only possibilities of suffering from adynamism, and it is that the cause may well have no physical basis, but psychological, and therefore not less affect the individual, so it is important to always consider this path as well, because the person also suffers from the effects of this disease.

      Psychological disorders as common in the population as depression can include forms of adynamism. in its symptomatology, because many patients report feeling unable to move, due to extreme weakness (in this case, it would be a perceived type, since there is no specific lesion of the muscles that affects their ability to contract).

      This is not the only one, because in eating disorders, such as anorexia, muscle weakness could also be generated in the person affected by this pathology compatible with the diagnosis of adynamism.

      Returning to the question of the diagnostic problem, it should be noted that the professional should always assess all possibilities, since there have been cases of people with a history of psychological problems (schizoaffective disorder, in this case) who, showing symptoms of adynamism, were referred to the mental health unit, only to later find that he was in fact suffering from severe anemia, in addition to nutritional problems and a lack of vitamins.

      This case shows that, although sometimes there may be a clear diagnosis at first, you should still be careful and not to close any doors, as there may be items that at first glance have escaped us and are in fact the real causes of the evil we are investigating (adynamic, in this case). To avoid these problems, there are protocols that professionals follow to the letter, to rule out each alternative without ignoring any.

      Gamstorp episodic adynamia

      We have reviewed the possible diseases and disorders that can lead to the onset of adynamism, but we have left for the end a very specific type of pathology, the so-called episodic adynamism of Gamstorp. This disease is also known as periodic hyperkalemic paralysis.

      is a rare disease, caused by mutations in certain genes in the individual (More precisely on chromosome 17), the alteration causes difficulties in neuronal communication through the sodium channels, and is linked to a high level of potassium in the subject’s body.

      The reason to leave this pathology for last is that in this case adynamism, and also in a very extreme way, would constitute practically all the symptoms of this disease. Patients who suffer from it report that they suffer from constant weakness in their muscles, leading to paralysis, and that this can appear for a variety of reasons, whether due to changes of temperature, of significant efforts, of experiencing moments of stress. High or even when using certain drugs.

      According to studies, the paralysis from which they suffer this type of dynamic focuses on intervals ranging from one to two hours, And are generally more common in the early hours of the morning or after resting after physical activity.

      The good news is that the episodic dynamics of Gamstorp improve as the patient’s age increases. It can also help improve through diet, by reducing the intake of carbohydrates and items that contain too much potassium, such as bananas. It is also recommended to do moderate physical exercise, which maintains a good state of shape without causing muscle paralysis.

      Bibliographical references:

      • Narberhaus, B., Cormand, B., Cuenca-León, I., Ribasés, M., Monells, J. (2008). Periodic hypercalaemic paralysis: presentation of a Spanish family with the mutation p. Thr704Met in the SCN4A gene. Neurology.
      • Rodriguez, Managing Director, Rosselli, DA (2017). Asthenia and dynamics in a patient with schizoaffective disorder: it’s not all in the mind. Medical universities.

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