The 10 types of anti-inflammatory drugs and their effects

Anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most widely consumed drugs. These drugs are used to reduce fever, pain, and inflammatory processes, which is why they are so consumed, besides being over the counter.

We all have ibuprofen, aspirin or even enantyum at home, drugs to which we are used to resorting from time to time thanks to their great effectiveness in reducing the discomfort associated with a bad act. or an infection.

Like all medicines, anti-inflammatory drugs come with a number of risks and can have side effects, although in most cases they are very safe. Today we are going to talk about what are the main types of anti-inflammatory drugs and some of its uses.

    What are anti-inflammatory drugs?

    Anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs which, as the name suggests, their main function is to reduce inflammation in a tissue or organ. Inflammation can be caused by infection, immune reactions, injury, or any other process that causes inflammation of body tissue, all of which are fought by the consumption of anti-inflammatory drugs.

    When these drugs are consumed, their active ingredients circulate in the bloodstream and are mainly exerted on their action, which is to prevent the body from generating prostaglandins, molecules responsible for triggering inflammatory processes in the body. It is because of these molecules that when we suffer some kind of damage where there is inflammation, our pain sensitivity increases in that area.

    Because anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the production of prostaglandins, they reduce inflammatory processes and, in addition, make us more resistant to pain for a while.

    Because of this, after taking any of these drugs, our pain and discomfort is reduced, whether in an organ, tissue, or in various parts of our body. Basically, they “numb” the pain receptors. In addition, anti-inflammatory drugs have an antipyretic effect, that is, they lower body temperature and therefore fever when taken.

    Anti-inflammatory courses

    There are two main groups of anti-inflammatory drugs.

    1. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids

    Corticosteroid anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs in which the active ingredient is cortisone or its derivatives.. Due to their side effects, cortisone anti-inflammatory drugs can only be prescribed for very specific cases.

    Among them we have cortisone itself, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, sodium phosphate, prednisone and methylprednisolone. Their consumption is generally not common and they are usually prescribed for arthritis and associated discomfort.

    2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs are drugs whose active ingredients are well-known components in popular culture., such as ibuprofen, dexketoprofen or naproxen.

    These drugs are more popular and more prescribed because they have better tolerance. However, it should not be trusted, as its overuse can cause problems with the digestive system, damage the kidneys and increase blood pressure. It is for this reason that, even if it is daily medication, it is necessary to follow the instructions given by the pharmacist and the doctor.

    3. Is PHARMES a type of anti-inflammatory?

    It should be noted that although they are not considered anti-inflammatory per se, long-term anti-rheumatic drugs or FARME fall into the category of drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

    Among these drugs are penicillamine, chloroquine and methotrexate, which have the particularity of influencing rheumatoid arthritis, like many anti-inflammatory drugs. In this case, these drugs slow down the progression of the disease, apparently altering the immune system and reducing the pain associated with the disease.

    The 10 most common types of anti-inflammatory drugs

    Beyond the above classification, there are different types of anti-inflammatory drugs which vary both in the time it takes to work on the body and in its potency. It also varies the amount of side effects they can cause and the potential risks. Below we will look at the most common anti-inflammatory drugs and for what diseases they are taken..

    1. Ibuprofè

    Ibuprofen or (RS) -2- (4-isobutylphenyl) propanoic acid is one of the most well-known anti-inflammatory drugs., maybe what more could you ask for. It is very effective and causes very little damage to the body which is why it is so consumed. In addition to relieving pain, this medicine reduces inflammatory processes and lowers fever.

    It is indicated for all infections with fever, in addition to relieving headaches, reducing menstrual cramps, relieving pain after a sports injury, decreasing inflammation of the mouth and throat and reducing pain. symptoms of arthritis. Unlike other drugs, ibuprofen has also been found to be helpful in relieving symptoms associated with migraine attacks or episodes.

    As a precaution and main indication, it is important to consume it only when one of the symptoms we have mentioned occurs and always respecting the maximum dose of 600 mg every 8 hours, although with 400 mg you get a lot of relief.

      2. Aspirin

      Aspirin is also a well-known anti-inflammatory drug around the world. The full name is acetylsalicylic acid and it has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it performs the same functions as ibuprofen, aspirin is commonly used for headache relief.

      Needless to say, this anti-inflammatory has a problem, which is what has antiplatelet effects i.e. reduces the blood’s ability to clot so after taking this medicine, if you have a cut it is more difficult for the wound to heal.

      3. Paracetamol

      Someone might be surprised to add paracetamol to this list. The reason? Because it’s not technically an anti-inflammatory. It does not belong to this group of drugs but has the distinction of having similar properties.

      Paracetamol has pain relieving properties and is helpful in lowering fever, although it does not reduce inflammation. and therefore cannot be considered an anti-inflammatory.

      This medication is recommended to relieve a little headache, muscle pain, back pain and lower fever. However, it cannot be recommended to relieve the associated inflammation when there are bumps, trauma, injury or arthritis as it has no anti-inflammatory effect and therefore does not reduce pain. associated with these injuries.

      It has two names in the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry): N- (4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide and N- (4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanamide

      4. Celecoxib

      Celecoxib or 4-[5-(4-metilfenil)-3-(trifluorometil)pirazol-1-il]Benzene sulfonamide is an anti-inflammatory drug which it is used to relieve pain that appears after an injury or trauma. It is also used to reduce the symptoms of arthritis and reduce the pain of menstrual periods.

      It is important to note that this drug is quite new and although it has been shown to be very effective and involves a lower risk of gastrointestinal problems and other side effects of NSAIDs, it is a much more expensive treatment compared to other anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or aspirin.

      5. Enantium

      Enantium or acid (2S) -2-[3-(benzoil)fenil]propanoic acid, also known as dexketoprofen, a very strong anti-inflammatory drug, so much so that it should not be taken without the supervision of a doctor. Its consumption should be limited to short periods, at most a week. It is used to treat acute pain in very painful situations, such as postoperatively or for very severe cases of back pain, muscle pain and severe trauma.

      6. Flurbiprofe

      Flurbiprofen, also known as Strepfen, Ansaid, Ocufen and named IUPAC (±) -2-fluoro-α-methyl- (1,1′-biphenyl) -4-acetic acid is an anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve pain. , reduce inflammation, decrease sensitivity and prevent stiffness associated with arthritis. This medication is not recommended for people who do not have arthritis, nor is it used to relieve other illnesses or to lower fever because of its potential.

      7. Naproxen

      Naproxen or (S) -2- (6-methoxy-2-naphthyl) propanoic acid is used to reduce fever, has anti-inflammatory properties and analgesic action. This medicine is usually not used to treat mild pain or to lower fever, but to treat arthritis, osteoarthritis, tendonitis, migraines and bursitis.

      8. Phenylbutazone

      Phenylbutazone (4-butyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolide-3,5-dione) is a very strong anti-inflammatory drug, given only when other drugs have not been helpful, and is still used to treat very severe cases of chronic pain, including symptoms of arthritis.

      The associated problem is the reduced levels of red blood cells and white blood cells, which is why we always try to avoid its administration or use it as a last resort to reduce pain.

      9. Piroxicam

      Piroxicam is a very strong anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve symptoms of arthritis, sharp and strong menstrual pain and to reduce pain after surgery surgical. It is also usually given for pain associated with prostate problems. His name at IUPAC is (8E) -8-[hidroxi-(piridin-2-ilamino)metilidene]- 9-methyl-10,10-dioxo-10λ6-thia-9-azabicyclo[4.4.0] deca-1,3,5-trien-7-one

      10. Diclofenac

      Diclofenac is another anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain associated with arthritis and other symptoms, in addition to reducing pain associated with menstrual periods and to treat migraines. Needless to say, this drug it is not used to prevent migraines or to prevent other types of headaches. Its systematic name is 2- (2-[(2,6-diclorofenyl)amino]phenyl) acetic.

      What side effects can they have?

      Although many anti-inflammatory drugs are available over the counter, remember that they are drugs, drugs that can cause random side effects and overdose. These are always chemicals that interact with our body, and although they are so useful to us, the body can interpret their presence as a poison to fight off.

      When ingesting a drug, the instructions should be followed, indicating the maximum daily dose based on age, diseases to be taken and other instructions. These drugs should never be taken on an empty stomach and the hours between one intake and the next must always be observed. If these indications are not followed, there is a risk of suffering from health problems which, although they are usually mild cases, can become complicated and cause significant damage.

      About 20% of people use anti-inflammatory drugs inappropriately (mainly abuse and misuse) can lead to stomach problems such as heartburn, heaviness in the stomach, or abdominal pain. It is common to have digestive and intestinal problems because this type of drug has the disadvantage of irritating the epithelium of the digestive tract.

      Consuming anti-inflammatory drugs can lead to serious stomach problems. Although this occurs in a fairly low percentage, in only 2% of cases and mainly associated with their misuse, may cause damage associated with irritation of the digestive tract, including stomach or duodenal ulcers. Serious medical conditions such as internal bleeding can even occur.

      With this in mind, it is very important to make responsible use of anti-inflammatory drugs, in addition to taking the right one for the disease you are suffering from and being followed by a professional. Not all anti-inflammatory drugs are the same, each has associated risks and, moreover, should be taken in different amounts depending on the age, type of patient and the severity of the inflammatory process for which it is intended.

      Bibliographical references

      • Roses Gómez de Salazar, J., Santos Soler, G., Martín Doménech, R. et al (2008) “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs”. Valencian Society of Rheumatology.
      • Pérez Aisa, A., (2012) “Side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs”. Costa del Sol Health Agency.
      • Jahnavi, K., Pavani Reddy, P., Vasudha, B., Boggula, N. (2019) “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an overview”. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics.
      • Moreno de la Font, José Luis. Physical podiatry. Publisher Elsevier Spain, 2006. ISBN 84-458-1577-6, 9788445815779

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