Having children is one of their vital goals for many people, as many couples seek out pregnancy actively and voluntarily. however, this development can be damaged or interrupted for several reasons. In addition, in other cases, there are unwanted pregnancies in which the person in question does not want to be a mother, does not have the resources, does not yet feel ready or is the product of rape.
In some of these cases, the person in question may choose to terminate the pregnancy. There are many circumstances and reasons that can lead to the decision to have an abortion or to have an abortion. This is why we can determine the existence of different types of abortion according to the characteristics that surround it.
What does the concept of abortion imply?
In order to be able to talk about the different types of abortion that exist, we must first understand what we mean by the term abortion.
It is understood by abortion in the process by which the gestation of an embryo is interrupted for different reasons. The pregnancy ends abruptly and the fetus dies and is expelled from the body of the pregnant woman.
There are many causes of abortion, both natural and caused by human action. So, we can find cases of unwanted pregnancies which are damaged for some reason or situations in which unintended pregnancy occurs and the person in question does not want to continue.
When it is natural, it usually occurs within twelve to fourteen weeks, that is, before the third month of gestation is completed. In the event of voluntary termination of pregnancy, the deadlines may vary depending on the law in force in each country and the assumptions and circumstances surrounding the pregnancy and the decision to terminate it.
It is possible to perform a classification of different types of abortion according to different criteria, For example if it is natural or provoked, the mechanisms used to terminate the pregnancy or the reasons which provoke it.
1. Spontaneous abortion
This type of abortion or termination of pregnancy for natural reasons is called a miscarriage and is neither intentional nor induced. This can be due to chromosomal alterations in the fetus, diseases or malformations of the mother, infections (as in septic abortion). The onset of this type of abortion usually occurs within the first twelve weeks.
when this happens very initially so that we are not yet in front of a fetus but when faced with an embryo, they may show no symptoms and even go unnoticed because they have become pregnant (it is estimated that a large number of pregnancies end up undetected).
However, if the detachment or death of the fetus occurs throughout the development of the fetus, it usually appears alongside heavy bleeding and pain in the uterus, which opens to make room for the remains. In some cases, the remains of the fetus are not completely expelled (especially if they are late abortions), in which case intervention will be necessary.
2. Abortion by infection or septic
It is an abortion subtype in which an infection is generated that affects the placenta or the fetus and ends with the death of the second. It is also called the result of an abortion in which the female reproductive system suffers from infection by the presence of the remains of an abortion or by injuries resulting from the performance of one.
3. Failed or sustained abortion
It is a type of natural abortion in which for some reason the pregnant fetus dies naturally, but remains in the mother’s womb for weeks without being expelled by the woman’s body. The pregnant woman still believes that she is pregnant and has the typical symptoms, but the pregnant woman’s heart has stopped beating nonetheless. It can only be detected by ultrasound. After detection, if the body does not expel the fetus or does not do so at all, it will be necessary to intervene with drugs or surgery.
4. Induced abortion
It is about abortion caused voluntarily, that is to say the result of the voluntary application of certain procedures terminate the pregnancy. Within it, we can find others such as therapeutic, those which are the result of rape or those which are freely decided.
5. Therapeutic abortion
Therapeutic abortion is one that is performed under the assumption that the pregnancy poses a risk to the health and even the survival of the mother. Abortions performed in the presence of alterations or serious diseases of the fetus that prevent it from surviving or developing in a normative way are also called abortions.
6. Legal abortion
When it comes to voluntary abortions, a legal abortion is one that this can be done according to the legislation in force. Although originally he could have a legal abortion only in cases of rape, serious deformities or risk to the life of the pregnant woman, today in many countries can abort legally without the need. to comply with these assumptions (albeit within a “ specific time frame that varies by Region.
In Spain, abortion is free up to fourteen weeks and after that it can only be legally interrupted if there is a risk to the life of the pregnant woman, serious fetal abnormalities and / or incompatible with life or certain diseases or malformations.
7. Illegal abortion
It is all the abortions that are done outside the law, in secret. This type of abortion poses a serious risk to the health of the pregnant woman in addition to a crime, because there is no guarantee as to the procedure and conditions of the intervention achieve.
8. Early abortion
It refers to this termination of pregnancy which occurs before twelve weeks.
9. Late abortion
This abortion in which the interruption occurs after twelve weeks of gestation.
10. Abortion by mechanical / surgical means
It refers to the type of induced abortion in which the interrupt method is mechanical, Stirring the fetus through procedures such as aspiration, scratching, or injection of substances that cause fetal burns and result in death.
11. Chemical or pharmacological abortion
Chemical abortion is the type of induced abortion in which certain drugs are given to the pregnant woman in order to terminate the pregnancy. It is generally considered to be safer than the surgical one.
12. Complete abortion
It is understood as such an abortion in which all the biological remains of the fetus and the placenta are expelled or removed.
13. Incomplete abortion
In case of incomplete abortion part of the fetus or the products of pregnancy remain inside the uterus, Stay stay inside. It can be induced or natural (in the latter case it is generally more frequent the more advanced the pregnancy is before its termination).
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- Pinto A, Gabiatti I, Motta M, Paiva L, Vergilio M, Silva J. (1991). Some characteristics of adolescent abortion.
- Schor N, López F. (1990). Adolescence and contraception: study of knowledge and use in postpartum women interns by childbirth or abortion. Tower. Public health.