The 24 skin pathologies: characteristics and how to recognize them

There are hundreds of diseases in this world, and the skin, our largest organ, is not free from all kinds of medical conditions.

There are skin pathologies of all kinds, in color, size, severity, contagious and genetic … and few are “pleasing” to the eye. If you want to get to know them, keep reading, because right now you will find a summary of skin diseases.

    The 24 most important skin conditions

    Skin conditions are numerous, and vary considerably in terms of symptoms and severity. There are some skin conditions that can be temporary, while others leave permanent effects, both painful and painless.

    Their causes are also very varied, as there are diseases that can have a genetic component while others arise due to infection or when they come in contact with an allergen.

    Below we will discover different types of skin pathologies with the keys to identify them.

    1. Acne

    Acne it usually occurs on the face, neck, shoulders, chest, and upper back. It consists of skin breakouts made up of black, white spots, shins, cysts and deep nodules, sometimes painful. If left untreated, it can leave scars.

      2. Bulb

      The bulbs consist of transparent skin bubbles with liquid inside. Those that are less than an inch are called blisters, while larger ones this size are often called bubbles. They can appear singly or in groups and can be located anywhere on the body.

      3. Basal cell carcinoma

      In basal cell carcinoma, they occur tall, firm, and pale areas that look like a scar.

      These areas are domed, pink or red, shiny and pearly with a hollow center, as if it were a crater. Blood vessels are visible as they grow, and easy bleeding occurs, with festering sores that don’t seem to win.

        4. Squamous cell carcinoma

        Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs in areas exposed to ultraviolet rays, such as the face, ears, and backs of the hands, which is why it is so important to put sunscreen on all parts of the body.

        It manifests as a scaly, reddish patch on the skin which, when developed, becomes a raised bulge. that continues to grow.

        5. Beehives

        Urticaria consists of itchy hives they usually appear after coming in contact with a certain type of allergen. These hives are red, hot, and painful to the touch. Its size varies, and can be small, round or larger frost with irregular shapes.

          6. Actinic keratosis

          Actinic keratosis consists of a thick, scaly, or crusted patch of skin that is usually no more than two centimeters in size.

          It appears on parts of the body that are generally exposed to the sun, such as the face, hands, arms, scalp, and neck. It has a pinkish color, although it can also acquire brown and gray tones.

          7. Pillar of keratosis

          Pillar keratosis is a common medical condition that is often seen on the arms and legs, but can also occur on the face, torso, and buttocks. It manifests in the form of irregular-looking spots on the skin, slightly reddish and rough to the touch, which can worsen in dry climates.

          8. Cold sores

          Cold sores are a red, sore, fluid-filled bottle that appears in the mouth and lips.

          The affected area usually causes tingling and a burning sensation, even before the sore becomes visible. It may be accompanied by mild flu-like symptoms, such as a mild fever, body aches, and swollen lymph nodes.

            9. Eczema

            Eczema consists of yellowish or whitish scaly patches that break off. The affected areas may be red, itchy, and festering some kind of fat. If the affected area had hair follicles, hair loss may occur.

            10. Psoriasis

            Psoriasis manifests itself in the form of scaly, whitish, well-defined patches on the skin. They usually appear on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. It can be itchy, but it can also show up asymptomatically beyond its appearance.

            11. Cellulitis due to infection

            Infectious cellulitis is skin disease caused by bacteria and fungi, which enter through a crack or cut. It manifests as reddened skin, accompanied by pain and inflammation, and there may be exudation.

            The affected areas feel warm and tender to touch. This disease can be aggravated because the affected person may suffer from fever and chills. The red spots on the rash may be a sign of a serious infection and the reason for going to the hospital for a medical emergency.

            12. Rosacea

            Rosacea is chronic pathology of the skin that comes and goes, with cycles of discoloration and relapse. Relapses can be caused by spicy foods, alcoholic drinks, sunlight, stress, and the bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

            There are four subtypes of rosacea (erythematous-telangiectatic, papulopustular, fimatous, and ocular), each with its varying symptoms. The most common symptoms are red bumps, flushing of the face, and dry skin.

            13. Coal

            Coal it’s a red, painful, irritated lump that is under the skin. It may be accompanied by moderately severe symptoms, such as fever, body aches and fatigue. This skin pathology can cause scabs and dermatological suppuration.

            14. Latex allergy

            Latex allergy consists of a rash that occurs minutes or hours after coming in contact with a product made from that material. It manifests as hot, red snoring, with itching at the contact site. It may appear dry and crisp when exposure to latex has been continuous.

            Latex particles can travel through the air, causing coughing, runny nose, itchy eyes, watery eyes, and sneezing. A severe allergy to this material can cause inflammation and difficulty breathing, which is why it is considered a condition requiring urgent medical attention.

            15. Measles

            Measles is a disease that has several symptoms, including fever, sore throat, redness of the eyes, tearing, runny nose, cough, and loss of appetite. On the skin, this medical condition manifests itself in the form of red spots that spread from the face to the rest of the body between three and five days after the first symptoms appear.

            16. Melanoma

            Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. This is a more common medical condition in people with fair skin, manifesting as a mole on any part of the body, with irregularly shaped edges., asymmetrical and in various tones. This spot can change color quickly, in addition to growing at an alarming rate.

            17. Lupus

            Lupus is a skin disease that manifests as lupus scaly, disc-shaped rash that doesn’t itch or hurt. It usually appears on the shoulders, forearms, neck and upper torso, worsening sun exposure.

            It can also come in the form of a hot red butterfly to the touch that extends over the cheeks and bridge of the nose, butterfly-shaped. It can be accompanied by fatigue, headaches, fever and swelling of the joints.

              18. Contact dermatitis

              Contact dermatitis, as the name suggests, is a skin condition that occurs when you come into contact with an allergen, whether after a few hours or a few days.

              It has visible edges and appears just in the area where the irritant was touched. The skin begins to itch, acquires a reddish color, flakes, and blisters may also appear, exuding, suppurating or forming crusts.

              19. Wart

              Warts are benign skin tumors caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). These bumps can be found on the skin and mucous membranes, occurring both singly and in groups. Because they are caused by viruses, they are contagious and require specific treatment to eliminate them.

              20. Chickenpox

              Chickenpox causes itchy, red, fluid-filled blisters on the skin at various stages of healing.. These rashes are accompanied by fever, body aches, sore throat, and even loss of appetite. Chickenpox is a contagious disease, and the person who has it stops infecting it as soon as all the blisters have crusted or have dried out.

              21. Vitiligene

              Vitiligo is a condition in which the skin loses its pigment due to the destruction of cells caused by the autoimmune system that attacks them. This disease is particularly striking in people with dark skin and can occur in two ways:

              • Focal loss: loss of skin color in only a few areas.
              • Segmental pattern: depigmentation on one side of the body.

              Wear premature white hair on the scalp and facial hair.

              22. Melasma

              Melasma is a common skin disease in which brown spots appear on the face, but also on the neck, chest and arms but less frequently.

              It is common in pregnant women (chloasma) and also in people with dark skin or more exposed to the sun. It doesn’t show any significant symptoms beyond skin discoloration and may go away on its own after a year, although there are cases where it becomes a permanent condition.

                23. Impulse

                Impetigenus is a common skin disease in infants and children. It is often located in the area around the mouth, chin, and nose, manifesting as an itchy rash with fluid-filled blisters that open easily and crust in yellowish and orange tones.

                24. Tenia

                Ringworm is a skin condition that presents as scaly rashes, with circular, raised edges. The shape is similar to that of a ring, inside which the skin acquires a clear and healthy shade, while the edges of the ring stretch outward and itchy.

                Bibliographical references

                • Brind’Amour, K. (2020). Everything you need to know about common skin conditions. Health line.
                • Penedo, P. (2020). 7 very common skin diseases and their relation to genetics. Intercontinental ridges.

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