Each of us is unique, has different characteristics and leads a different life than everyone else. However, most of us have a number of common abilities and skills that are generally taken for granted in most people. And in some cases and for different circumstances, some people lose or have not developed these skills in the same way as most of the population.
These people can suffer from it due to various difficulties in different aspects of their life, be able to suffer from different types of disabilities according to the type of problem or the capacities or organs which present a certain alteration. And it is these different types of disability that we will talk about in this article.
What is handicap?
By disability we mean all that situation in which a subject sees his participation in some kind of limited field or action, Due to the existence of some kind of deficiency in certain organs or intellectual capacities. It is in itself the existence of a limitation, and it is not a cause but a consequence.
The existence of a disability therefore implies a difficulty or an obstacle for the subject’s participation in society or in an aspect or a vital area in relation to the possibilities offered by these people without the deficiency in question or even the subject himself. . .
However, disability does not mean that the person who suffers from it cannot carry out and carry out the same activities as long as he has assistance adapted to his needs.
In the same way, the term “disability” is not synonymous with illness, Although in practice the two concepts often overlap in many cases. In any case, disability itself is not a word that is limited to the clinical and health field, and its implications are more linked to the social world: town planning, architecture, politics, etc.
The different types of disability
As we stated above, there is not just one type of handicap but we can find different classifications depending on the type of problem in which difficulties arise. Thus, we can establish different main types of disability, the first three being the most taken into account.
1. Physical disability
It receives the name of physical or motor handicap all this type of limitation caused by the presence of a problem related to a reduction or elimination of motor or physical abilities, Such as the physical loss of a limb or its usual functionality.
This type of disability occurs in the context of spinal cord problems, traffic accidents, traumatic brain injuries, medical illnesses causing physical limitations, amputations, birth defects or strokes.
2. Sensory disability
Sensory impairment refers to the existence of limitations arising from the existence of impairments in some of the senses that allow us to perceive the environment outside or inside. There are impairments in all directions, although the most well-known are visual and hearing impairments.
3. Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability is defined as any limitation in intellectual functioning that hinders social participation or the development of autonomy or areas such as academia or employment, having a CI below 70 and influencing different cognitive skills and social participation. There are different degrees of intellectual disability, Which have different implications in terms of the type of difficulties they may present.
4. Psychic disability
We talk about mental disability when we are faced with a situation in which they present themselves behavioral and adaptive behavior disordersUsually resulting from suffering from some type of mental disorder.
5. Visceral disability
This little-known type of disability appears in people who suffer from a certain type of deficiency in one of its organs, which causes limitations in the life and community participation of the subject. This is the case with those that can lead to diabetes or heart problems..
6. Multiple disabilities
This type of disability is the result of a combination of limitations arising from some of the above shortcomings. For example, a blind and intellectually handicapped subject, or a paraplegic subject suffering from deafness.
What does it mean socially that there are disabled people?
As we have seen previously, the different types of handicap they are not just an individual problem, but raise a series of debates with social implications.
Indeed, the very concept of disabled person should not imply that these people are doomed to suffer from not being able to adapt to an environment that is not intended for them.
For that, there are many social movements that fight for the inclusion of people with disabilities in the notion of citizen with agency evolve in a society that takes them into account.
This means, for example, caring about making streets and buildings accessible, making institutions usable by them, avoiding linguistic formulations that facilitate discrimination, etc. In short, a whole series of demands as plural as they are plural and diverse is society.
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