There are few subjects in the world of psychology that generate as much controversy as the study and evaluation of human intelligence.. The dispute as to whether it is possible to measure a person’s intelligence on the basis of a single construct or whether there really is general intelligence persists to this day.
However, tests that attempt to measure human intelligence are among the most widely used in all areas of assessment. Being the Raven Matrix test is one of the acclaimed and traveled tests for its ease of application and versatility.
What is the Raven Progressive Matrix Test?
The Raven Progressive Matrix Test is a well-known test used in the psychological and educational psychology field. This test, designed in 1938 by the English psychologist John C. Raven, was designed to calculate the “G” factor of intelligence and its administration was reserved for officers of the United States Navy.
The intelligence factor “G” refers to the general intelligence that conditions any execution or troubleshooting., And is common to all skills that require an intellectual component. This factor highlights the ability of a person to do intellectual work.
The main feature of this test is to encourage analogical reasoning, perception, and the ability to abstract. In addition, being a non-verbal test uses the comparison between forms and reasoning by analogy, without the person needing any prior culture or knowledge.
Currently, different versions of this test exist, which are administered depending on the age and ability of the person to be assessed. These three versions are: The general scale for people between 12 and 65 years old
- Progressive color matrices for children between 3 and 8 years old with a kind of intellectual functional diversity
- Advanced matrices for assessing people with above-average abilities
A number of distinctive features have made this test one of the most widely used. These characteristics are given both at the level of administration, as well as of objectives and reliability.
Another goal of the Raven Progressive Matrix Test is to measure a person’s educational ability., Which we will explain later, by comparing the shapes and using reasoning by analogy; all this independently of the knowledge previously acquired by the subject.
It is a test that uses series of abstract and incomplete geometric figures which present themselves to the person gradually and with ascending difficulty. The test can be administered using printed forms or also virtually.
Another advantage of this test is that it is capable of being self-administered and administered both individually and collectively.
The application time for this test is between 30 and 60 minutes, but it is not completed until 45 minutes after its start.
4. Reliability and validity
Finally, in terms of reliability and validity of this test, it has a reliability of 0.87-0.81, while the validity got an index of 0.86. These data were obtained using the Kuder-Richardson formulas and the Terman Merrill criteria.
In what contexts is this test administered?
The Raven Progressive Matrix Test is used as a basic and applied assessment tool, and its administration can be extended to a wide variety of areas. However, the contexts in which this test is used the most are:
- Teaching centers
- Career guidance and personnel selection centers
- Psychological clinics
- Psychological, sociological and anthropological research centers
- Military and defense context
Objective of the test: the ability to educate
As stated at the beginning of the article, one of the main purposes of the test is to test and measure a person’s educational ability.
This educational ability refers to the ability of people to find relationships and correlations in information presented in a disorganized and poorly systematized manner in which these relationships do not immediately become apparent.
The ability to educate is associated with the intellectual ability to compare images and representations, as well as analogical reasoning.No matter what level of culture or knowledge the person has.
This skill is the most important spring of high-level cognitive functioning, which is involved in the various processes of abstraction. Likewise, if we compare it with other related concepts, the ability to educate is the one that most closely resembles fluid intelligence.
What is this test based on? Spearman’s bifactor theory
English-born psychologist Charles Spearman established the existence of general intelligence in 10904. Based on his research, Spearman indicated that the “G” factor of intelligence was primarily responsible for general intellectual performance. of the person.
Spearman believed that if a person is able to excel in certain areas or cognitive activities, they are more likely to do so in almost all areas. For example, a person with good numeric test scores is very likely to score high on logic or verbal tests as well.
As a result, he developed a theory known as the bifactor theory, according to which in human intelligence two fundamental parameters can be distinguished: the general factor or “G” factor and the special factor or “S” factor.
The general factor refers to a personal and possibly hereditary quality. It consists of a special attribute of the brain that differs from person to person but remains stable throughout a person’s life.
This factor encompasses the specific abilities or skills that a person possesses to cope with any type of task.. Unlike the “G” factor, this differs depending on the person’s previous training and cannot be extrapolated to other areas.
However, there is little controversy surrounding these constructions, as some sectors support the idea that there can be no idea of general intelligence and that this is only a sampling of the opportunities that A person has had to acquire certain skills or acquire certain knowledge. .