The 5 types of intellectual giftedness (and their characteristics)

Human intelligence is the capacity that enables a person to learn, understand, reason and make decisions in relation to those around him. When these abilities are intrinsically superior to those of others, we can speak of giftedness..

Gifted people are those who enjoy superior intelligence, remarkable creativity, and extreme curiosity. All this makes of these people beings with special needs and demands, being of great importance, in the case of children, a specialized vocational guidance.

    What is giftedness?

    The term intellectual talent refers to people with superior intellectual abilities compared to average abilities which determine the various IQ assessment tests. Specifically, the World Health Organization (WHO) states that a gifted person is someone who has an IQ greater than 130 points.

    Likewise, a distinction should be made between giftedness and a person with notable specific skills, as the former is considered innate and cannot be achieved through practice and the latter is achieved through teaching and / or repetition.

    Giftedness does not need to be at a general level, however, it can be given in a specific area of ​​knowledge. A person may be born with special skills or gifts for music, but not for math.

    Model of the three rings

    Gifted scholar Joseph Renzulli (1936) developed a model called the Three Rings Model, which examines the peculiarities that a gifted child or person should be distinguished as such.

    According to this model, a gifted person must possess a perfect and balanced combination of these three qualities:

    • high intelligence: The person must have high computer system skills.
    • Creativity: Must be a creative person with divergent thinking.
    • Involvement in tasks: The person must be sufficiently motivated to ensure the success of his potential.

    Types of giftedness

    Within the framework of Spanish legislation, in particular the ordinance relating to pupils with special educational needs, a distinction is made between the existence of different types of endowment.

    This distinction is made depending on whether the person has a creative talent or a gifted one with a high IQ.

    1. Creative softness

    People who are credited with creative talent they are characterized by a hyper development of their sense of humor and a playful disposition which is extrapolated to all areas of his life.

    Usually, professionals find it very difficult to recognize this type of giftedness, as traditional intelligence tests are not helpful for this. However, there is one little-known test to assess people with these types of skills and it is the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTTC).

    The features examined in this test are:

    • originality
    • Mastery of ideas
    • elaboration
    • Sense of humor
    • Vision of unusual perspectives
    • Wealth in the imagination
    • imaginative quality
    • Closure resistance
    • Abstraction of titles
    • Ability to fully extend or break joints

    2. Has a high IQ

    People with an IQ greater than 140 points they are considered to be people of great general intelligence. But within this category, three groupings can be distinguished:

    2.1. Endowed with a privileged context with an IC around 140

    These people see teaching as a fun thing. In children, these are able to keep the mind active and attentive much longer than the rest of their peers. who have an intelligence closer to the average. They are able to maintain their activity for longer and tend to have a sleep pattern with fewer hours than usual.

    As for personality traits, they are generally confident and unconventional, and show very critical attitudes towards other children, sometimes overestimating themselves.

    In addition, they have a great talent for solving problems, as well as a great capacity for reaction and resistance in tense or stressful situations. Although, sometimes they both fail in their sensitivity due to their high self-esteem and self-confidence.

    2.2. Endowed with limited financial resources

    Unlike the previous ones, gifted people with limited financial resources have considerable emotional sensitivityTo the point of self-incriminating for possessing abilities at a much higher level than their peers.

    This emotional sensitivity makes them much nicer to their peers and develops a great sense of friendship. Plus, they often feel the need to make a good impression and love the more people the better.

    Because of all of this, they tend to be highly regarded by peers and teachers, and tend to end up being group leaders, but without exhibiting positions of authority or dominance. They are also characterized by being more conformist and less spontaneous, with a much higher integration of rules and regulations.

    Gifted people raised in low-income settings have a great fear of failure, so they usually don’t have to risk too much. In children they are usually much more aware of the reality around them, this point of view can be reflected in different areas:

    • Great love at school and the different means of learning
    • Learn in an articulate way, Relate all theories to the context around them
    • functions, Professions and interests less childish.

    2.3. Endowed with extreme precocity

    The third subgroup of this category is made up of those people who, with their talent they have some form of severe personality disorder, Which in most cases presents as schizophrenia.

    These people protect themselves in intellectual professions and hobbies that separate them from psychosis and help them to simulate an ordinary way of life, it can be said that it is a defense mechanism in the form of regulatory therapy.

    During childhood, these children have great obstacles in maintaining any kind of relationship with their peers, so they usually end up being marginalized by their peers, to the point of suffering from an emotional disorder.

    In addition, they are able to relate everything that has been learned to reality, sometimes exhibiting strange behaviors and sudden and unexpected reactions. This ability to understand causes them not to tolerate certain behaviors and to be aware of their high capacities, they react in an aggressive and biting way.

    Despite this, they appreciate a significant learning speed as well as excellent communication skills, Being the elaborate and concise speech very characteristic of these people.

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