About a decade passed from the previous version of the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), adapted for Spain in 2005, until the release of the new version, the WISC-V. Between the two tests, several modifications of the scales can be observed that make up each of the tests.
These scales currently offer a higher level of reliability and validity of the theoretical concept of “intelligence”, which has been obtained from the most recent scientific findings in the fields of intelligence, neurodevelopment and learning processes. .
In the text published by the General Cinsejo of the Spanish COP, an increase in psychometric indices is confirmed on: Theoretical foundations, Item analysis, different types of validity (content and internal structure) and different types of Reliability, stability, internal consistency). Thus, most of these scores on these methodological characteristics are in the category of Exelente.
Below we will see a detailed description of the essential aspects of the main tests that make up the current WISC-V.
Features of WISC-V
The WISC V is an individual application clinical trial for the assessment of intellectual capacities of people aged 6 to 16 years 11 months.
The results obtained in each of the scales it contains lead to 5 specific scores, the global indices and a general score which indicates the total IQ of the (CI) assessed. The statistical expression of the CI score starts from the normal type distribution of the intelligence variable, which indicates that the population mean is 100 and has a standard deviation of +/- 15 points.
Thus, 68% of the population is between 85 and 115 years old and only 2% are at the extremes (scores below 70 or above 130). Below 85, it is understood that the individual has a general intellectual capacity well below the average. The same goes for numbers above 115, although in the opposite direction (higher intellectual capacity).
News in indices, factors and scales
As a novelty from its predecessor, the components have been reformulated and added to some of the five primary indices. Thus, the WISC-IV consisted of the cues: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed. In contrast, WISC-V includes verbal comprehension, fluent reasoning, visuospatial ability, working memory, and processing speed. Therefore, the previous main factor “perceptual reasoning” has been divided in current “fluid reasoning” and “visuospatial ability” expanding the specificity of the skills included in each.
On the other hand, the following secondary factors can also be obtained: quantitative reasoning (measurement of the accuracy of academic achievements in reading and mathematics), auditory working memory (memory capacities and proactive inhibition of interference) and non-verbal (intellectual aptitude). content), general ability (intellectual ability less related to working memory and processing speed than total CI) and cognitive competence (efficiency in processing information).
more precisely the WISC-V has fifteen scales, Which are detailed below:
DESCRIPTION OF THE TESTCubs Reproduction with cube-shaped pieces of two-color models presented on cards with a certain time limit. similaritiesDescription of conceptual elements that present two words read by the examiner.MatrixSelection among various options of the element which completes each of the presented matrices.figuresRepeating a series of numbers that the examiner indicates according to three different criteria: repeating in the same order, repeating in reverse order, and repeating in numerical order from less to more.keysCopy the symbols assigned to numbers between 1 and 9 in a given time.vocabularyGraphic identification and verbal definition of the elements indicated by the examiner.scales *Select from several response options that balances the weight on the indicated scale at a specific time.Visual puzzles *Selection of the elements that make up the puzzle presented in a limited time.Drawing time *Identification of the elements presented in order of appearance, in the first presentation, in a subsequent series where more interspersed elements appear.Find SymbolsIdentification of one of the two model symbols in a larger set of elements, with a time limit.informationAssessment of general knowledge on the basis of questions of a different nature.Letters and numbersArrangement of the elements (letters and numbers) indicated by the examiner, respectively in ascending and alphabetical order.cancellation *Look for elements in a set of stimuli presented in a structured or random way in a given time.comprehensionAnswer questions asked by the examiner about social norms and rules.arithmeticMental solve arithmetic problems within a given time.
The fifteen tests shown are classified into two different subtypes (main and optional) depending on whether they are to be counted for the final tally of the total IQ value. Thus, the scales that add up for this calculation become: Cubells, Similarities, Matrices, Digits, Keys, Vocabulary and Balances. * Tests of new incorporation in the WISC-V version.
As noted above, the list of fifteen tasks specified above constitutes five indexes, which consist of a capacity assessment:
1. Verbal comprehension
Assess verbal training skills, expression of relationships between concepts, richness and accuracy of definition of words, understanding of social conventions and knowledge related to culture. It is made up of the Similarities, Vocabulary, Information and Comprehension scales.
2. Fluid reasoning
This corresponds to a measure of logical-deductive reasoning and identification of abstract visual patterns and simultaneous processing capability using visual analogies. It consists of measures of balances, matrices and arithmetic.
3. Visospatial capability
Determine the level of reasoning from stimuli and abstract information of a conceptual type in the, Visual analysis, as well as constructive practical ability and perceptual organization. Cubells stairs and visual puzzles are included.
4. Work report
It is a measure of the information retention and storage capacityIn addition to the ability to mentally operate with this information, transform it and generate a new result with it. This index includes the Digits, Letters and Numbers and Drawing Span tests.
5. Processing speed
Analysis ability to focus attention and in the exploration, ordering, discrimination of visual information presented quickly and effectively. It includes key scales, symbol search and cancellation.
Fields and purposes of application
The WISC-V test has been designed for purposes included in the clinical and neuropsychological application areas, educational psychology, forensic psychology or in the field of social services.
In the different aspects between the main objectives of this test, the determination of cognitive ability or neuropsychological functioning becomes both in establishing and in rejection of the existence of: Developmental disorders (such as spectrum disorders autistic or intellectual disability disorders), the presence of High Capacities; Specific learning disabilities, neuropsychological dysfunctions such as dementia, attention deficit disorder or the determination of special educational needs (SEN) in the school community.
- General Psychological Council of Spain: https://www.cop.es/uploads/PDF/2016/WISC-V.pdf
- Hernández, A., Aguilar C., Paradell, I. and Tanca, F. (2015) Review of the Spanish Adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – V. Ed: Pearson Education.