Scientific research is a fundamental activity in the development of new breakthroughs that allow human beings to facilitate their journey around the world and / or to improve their understanding of the universe and the phenomena that take place there.
But an investigation does not come out of nowhere: there must be some reason that piqued interest in the topic the researcher raises. Also, and especially if this research requires a third party investment, it is necessary to be able to specify why and for what it is planned or interesting to conduct the study.
This is why it is necessary to develop a justification of the project, which makes it possible to understand for which part or for what it is intended to be carried out. There are many ways to do this and it can sometimes be difficult to express the why of our projects. That is why throughout this article we will see examples of justification of a project, In order to visualize different ways of doing it.
What is the project justification called?
The part of a project in which all the reasons and arguments that led the researcher to propose and do so is called the justification of a project. This justification must be included in the actual elaboration of the written work, generally at the beginning of the work., As it allows to have a context in relation to what it raises to work: it allows to understand where it arises and what it is trying to get investigated. It is a question of answering what, how, why and for what the project will be carried out.
It is therefore one of the fundamental parts of any work because it is the explanation provided of the motivations which led the research to take off, the reasons which lead to consider that the conduct of the research is useful and important. It is particularly relevant to establish the benefits that the research can generate to understand the object of the study and / or the practical applications that it can have.
Different types of arguments
Justifying a project requires establishing a certain number of arguments that must be valid and powerful enough to prove the need for research. In this sense, there are many options to argue and defend our project.
Some of the most common are the fact that the research allows the advancement of knowledge in a specific area (which would involve serving as a first step for the development of more complex or broader research), the possibility that the research can be applied by the solution of a specific problem, the application of a method for a different purpose for which it was designed.
It can also justify research to lower costs, improve efficiency or reduce the consumption of resources, improve the quality of life of the population or enable positive social and educational changes.
Examples of project justification
Here we leave you a series of examples of justification of a project in different fields of research and with different arguments (many of which are an introduction to the study).
1. Reduction of depression in the elderly through reminiscence therapy
There is little work on modifying autobiographical memories, both in young people (Watkins, Teasdale, & Williams, 2000; Williams, Teasdale, Segal, & Soulsby, 2000) and in the elderly. However, research by Serrano, Latorre, Gatz and Montañés (2004) indicates that the examination of life based on the practice of autobiographical recovery is effective in altering autobiographical memories in older people with depression, resulting in a decreased depressive and hopeless symptoms, and increased satisfaction with life and recovery from specific autobiographical events.
The work presented here is also part of the results which indicate a reduction in depressive symptoms in the elderly who participated in an intervention program consisting of individual reminiscence sessions (Afonso and Bé, 2009). The implemented program (Afonso, 2008) promotes recovery from positive and negative events.
This characteristic, which is innovative from other existing reminiscence programs, is related to the centrality attributed to the construction of ego integrity in the design and construction of the programs. From this arises the need to work on unresolved conflicts, which implies the reminiscence of positive and negative events. According to previous authors (e.g. Wong, 1995) this idea is based on the premise that one of the most important functions of reminiscence is to help the person achieve the integrity of the eye through memories of integration.
From all of the above, The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms of old age and characteristics of autobiographical memories.. That is to say, to clarify the role of the type of memories obtained as an explanatory factor for the observed decrease in depressive symptoms in the elderly after participation in an individual therapeutic program based on integration reminiscence.
In this line, the specific objectives of this study are:
- To assess whether seniors exposed to the reminiscence program increase their average level of specific and positive autobiographical memories, compared to seniors not exposed to the intervention
- Analyze whether there is a negative correlation between depressive symptomatology and specific autobiographical memories and whether there is a positive correlation between depressive symptomatology and recovery of general autobiographical memories.
- Analyze whether there is a negative correlation between depressive symptoms and the recovery of positive autobiographical memories and whether there is a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and the recovery of negative autobiographical memories.
2. Study on the use of T. harzianum for the stimulation of the growth of Pinus radiata
The forestry industry is the second largest source of foreign exchange in Chile, where Pinus radiata D. Don is the main species, exporting $ 2.205 billion in timber and processed products (INFOR 2005). This level of export generates strong pressure on plant production, directly affecting nurseries looking for new alternatives to increase both production and plant quality.
To date, the use of microorganisms to enhance the development of P. radiata plants has been based primarily on ectomycorrhizae, considered a key factor for normal pine growth (Meyer 1973, Harley and Smith 1983). The benefits obtained vary according to the environmental conditions and the particular association of the species concerned (Trappe 1977, Bledsoe 1992).
In general, ectomycorrhizal seedlings have better adaptation to water stress (Duddridge et al. 1980, Boyd et al. 1986, Reid et al. 2002) and greater survival in plantations (Wright 1957, 1971, Castilla y Molina 1989). ).
Notwithstanding the above, non-mycorrhizal fungi can stimulate the growth of cultivated plants (Rabeendran et al. 2000), this is the case of Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) (Deuteromycetes). This species is recognized for its characteristics as a biocontroller of soil pathogens (Elad et al. 1987, 1980, Harman et al. 1981, Harman and Kubicek 1998) and for being a common soil inhabitant, cosmopolitan, saprophytic and generally associated with rhizosphere (Cook and Baker 1989).
In several pathogen control studies, under axenic conditions, T. harzianum was observed not only to reduce the severity of these diseases, but also induced plant growth stimulation, Existing reports only on herbaceous species such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa Linnaeus) (Baker 1988, Lynch et al. 1991), maize (Zea mays Linnaeus) (Blanchard and Bjorkman 1996), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Linnaeus) , squash (Cucurbita maxima Linnaeus) (Chang et al. 1986, Kleifeld and Chet 1992), petunia (Petunia hybrida Linnaeus) (Ousley et al. 1994), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) (Windham et al. 1986) , among others, and there are no reports on forest species.
Stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, a product of T. harzianum applications as well as control mechanisms may, to some extent, explain the stimulation of growth (Bailey and Lumsden 1998; Kleifeld and Chet 1992). Despite the above, this effect has also been observed in cultures under controlled conditions, where pathogen free environments have been generated (Windham et al. 1986, Kleifeld and Chet 1992).
The present study aims to determine the stimulating capacity of a native strain of T. harzianum on Pinus radiata seedlings and the effect of using compost as a substrate on this interaction, both from the point of view of the plant (vigor) and the fungus (population).
3. Deficiency of pharmacological treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes
“Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a genetically determined disease in which the subject exhibits alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin secretion with varying degrees of resistance. Between 85 and 90% of patients with DM are type 2 diabetics.
Intensive and appropriate treatment is linked to the delay in the onset and progression of chronic complications of the disease, so that it seems reasonable to recommend strict control of their treatment.
Treatment status is defined as the behavior of the patient that matches the medical prescription, in terms of taking medication, dieting or transforming their lifestyle. The inclination to treatment is important to assess the clinical course, because a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the doctor is necessary for the success of the treatment.
There are several techniques for measuring inclination to pharmacological treatment, such as directly quantifying the drug in blood or urine, interviewing the patient, and counting pills, among others. The lack of treatment affects significant financial expenses, as more than 10% of hospitalizations are due to this cause. Risk factors for a non-therapeutic condition are those related to the patient, the disease, the attending physician, the location where the treatment is prescribed and the drug itself.
Studies on this subject show 50% compliance in chronic disease; and in acute illnesses, such as diarrhea, it varies between 31% and 49%, with the following associated risk factors: ignorance of the disease, mistrust of the doctor’s skill, duration of consultation less than five minutes, lack of understanding of medical indications, low education, marital status and drug intolerance.
Another factor associated with non-compliance with therapeutic treatment is the use of plants or animal products to which medicinal properties are attributed. It is necessary to emphasize to the patient the acceptance of his suffering and to identify the affective and anxiety disorders that this implies, because its appropriate management is also associated with an improvement in the quality of life and the therapeutic inclination.
The economic importance of inappropriate drug consumption is indisputable and poses a real challenge for administrators, due to the economic waste that patients make; in studies conducted for this purpose, consumption was found to be less than 75%.
It is considered to be an adequate control of DM, when the value of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is between 8% and 12%. The American DM Association has established biochemical parameters for disease control. The normal value of HbA1c is estimated to be 3-6%, but due to methodological differences in the measurement technique, it is the laboratory’s responsibility to standardize the technique to be used; however, its use has not been widely publicized due to the ignorance of the doctor and the lack of standardization of results.
For the reasons mentioned, we consider it important to identify in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus the frequency of non-involvement in therapy, its correlation with metabolic control, as well as the associated risk factors, in order to to conduct programs aimed at modifying and thus affecting metabolic control in the diabetic patient. “
4. Analysis and intervention proposal on cyberbullying
“The project represented here part of a series of objectives that emerged from the analysis of the current situation with regard to the treatment of cyberbullying in schools, as well as the lack of resources shown by many affected people and their environment.
Lyour objectives pursued with this project they will, first of all, do a bibliographic research on the subject in order to define and contextualize the phenomenon of cyberbullying, its main actors and its consequences. This objective is considered as a means both to improve the understanding of the situation of the people affected by the phenomenon studied and to allow the achievement of the second and main objective; and focuses on developing a viable intervention proposal that can be put into practice in a widespread manner, in response to the need to provide tools to school professionals, families and students themselves who experience situations of bullying through networks.
In connection with this objective, it is also a question of making the various professionals aware of the need to maintain a close link with other education agents. The objective of this link is, in addition to promoting interaction and collaborative work between agents, to promote optimal education that allows for the establishment of healthy relationships based on respect between the components of society, as well as on the promotion and maximization of the human development of adolescents.
A series of questionnaires will also be developed which could be used in the future to compare the opinions, attitudes and procedures used by professionals of different profiles dedicated to the education sector or linked to the human development processes of high school students. With which he establishes literature and theory. Finally, it also aims to provide a critical reflection on the aspects that were worked on during the preparation of the document, in order to promote possible improvements that the system could implement. “
5. Gender-based violence in Spanish universities
“This research breaks the silence around gender violence in our universities. The existence of gender violence in universities has been investigated for decades in other countries such as the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.
This R&D project is the first research in Spanish universities to focus on this subject, In conjunction with another research funded by the Generalitat de Catalunya which is part of the context of Catalan universities, also directed by Rosa Valls (VALLS, 2005-2006).
The aim of this research is analyze the existence of gender violence in Spanish universities and identify measures that can help overcome it. To this end, an analysis was first made of research that studied the phenomenon of gender violence in the academic context at the international level. Among this research, particular interest was given to those who implemented questionnaires as a tool for collecting information, to extract these indicators applicable to a questionnaire within the framework of our universities.
The second section of this article provides a summary of the state of play in international search. On the other hand, an inventory of measures and resources against gender violence that have been developed in the 20 most prestigious international universities has been drawn up. Subsequently, the evaluation of our university community around these measures was collected. In-depth interviews with faculty, administration and service staff (hereafter PAS) and daily life communication stories with students from the six participating universities were conducted.
The contribution of this article will mainly focus on an exhibition of some of the most significant results that the faculty, PAS and the students contributed to their evaluation and their perception of the measures of attention and prevention of gender violence implemented in universities of international prestige and of the convenience to be applied in Spanish universities. It is included in the third section and in the conclusions of the article. “
- the role of the governing bodies and the clarity of the role in family businesses “The work aims to show that an appropriate organizational structure, in which the different governing bodies are clearly distinguished, as well as their functions and responsibilities, is one of the elements keys to commercial success and survival of loved ones.
Equipping the right governing bodies helps reduce the negative consequences of role confusion, so common in family businesses, as well as laying the groundwork for increased commitment to the organization and creating effective avenues for conflict resolution. . “
7. Relationship between family climate and school climate
One study presented as necessary for comment in this regard is the classic work of Bernstein in the 1970s, which concludes that the adolescent’s negative or positive attitude towards teachers and school can be determined by the perception that the family has a school environment and these figures of formal authority.
It is therefore possible that the family is an essential reference by shaping the attitude towards institutional authority (such as school and faculty) which, in turn, has been found to have a decisive influence on violent behavior in adolescents (Emler & Reicher, 1995 ; Hoge, Andrews & Leicheid, 1996).
Thus, the family environment and the attitude towards authority seem to be two factors of great relevance to explain certain violent behaviors in adolescence, both inside and outside the school context (Decker, Women and Christenson, 2007; Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). In view of the above, the main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the two contexts from the adolescent’s perception of the family and school climate, by analyzing the role played by certain individual factors (such as as the capacity for empathy, attitude towards authority and violent behavior) to the association between them.
More precisely, the starting hypotheses are as follows: (1) the perception of the family climate will be directly and positively linked to the perception of the school climate; (2) the perception of the family climate will be indirectly associated with the perception of the school climate by the attitude towards institutional authority, empathy and violent behavior. Therefore, we seek to analyze to what extent certain skills, attitudes and behaviors acquired or improved in the family environment can affect the relationships that develop in another socialization context very relevant to adolescence, such as school.
Deepening the knowledge of these relationships can translate, as we have pointed out, into a clear advantage for the design of preventive strategies for the development of behavioral problems in school, as well as aimed at improving the climate in the classroom and, therefore, of coexistence in schools “
- Afonso, R. and Bueno, B. (2010). Reminiscence with different types of autobiographical memories: effects on reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly Psicothema, 22 (2): 213-220 University of Oviedo Oviedo, Spain.
- Castillero-Mimenza, O. (2016). Cyberbullying: network harassment. Analysis and intervention proposal. University of Barcelona. [En línea]. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/103343
- Donoso, I., Wolves, GA and Rojas, N. (2008). Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and compost on the growth of Pinus radiata seedlings in the nursery. Bosc, 29 (1): 52-57.
- Durán-Varela, BR, Rivera-Chavira, B. and Franco-Gallecs, I. (2000). Affection of pharmacological treatment in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. National Institute of Public Health.
- Manzano García, G., Ayala Calvo, JC (2003). Successful family businesses: governance bodies and clarity of roles. In: Sainz de Vicuña Ancín, JM (2003) The strategic plan in practice. University of La Rioja
- Moreno Ruiz, D., Estévez López, I., Murgui Pérez, S. and Musitu Ochoa, G. (2009). Relationship between family climate and school climate: the role of empathy, attitude towards authority and violent behavior in adolescence. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 9 (1): 123-136. University of Almeria Almeria, Spain
- Valls Carol, R., Torrego Egido, L., Colás Bravo, P., and Ruiz Eugenio, L. (2009). Prevention of gender-based violence in universities: evaluation of the university community on support and prevention measures. Interuniversity Teacher Training Journal, (64), 41-58.