Informative text: definition, types and characteristics

Informative texts they aim to convey information about a particular fact or subject.

Such texts are intended to be objective, because their intention is to inform. In addition, they should make it easier to understand the topic being explained and give enough detail for the reader to understand what is being explained.

In these lines we will see what are the characteristics of the informative text and its main types.

    Information text characteristics

    These types of texts describe real events and themes. Its purpose is to transmit information about reality, touching on different subjects. It is therefore a type of text in which the data described is not fiction or at least is based on a real fact.

    This avoids repeating something that has already been explained previously and the information is intended to be given as clearly as possible. Its structure usually consists of an introduction, an expansion and a conclusion.

    The language used can be specialized, varying according to the subject explained. Outraged, this language should be consistent, direct, objective and the use of linguistic resources such as metaphors or popular slang should be avoided., Since it can lead the reader to interpret the information explained in a different way from that intended by the sender.

    To make it easier for the reader to find and understand the information, various resources can be incorporated into the informative text: index, bold or underlined text, glossary with specialized words, graphics, legends, tables, as well as references to be able to expand more knowledge.

    For an informative text to be appropriate, the content presented must be explained and explained in an impersonal way. The aim of this type of text is always to explain a certain topic to a reader and that after reading it he has acquired new knowledge.

    The ideas presented in the text must be correctly arranged. For this reason, examples, bibliographic sources and clarifications are generally used to ensure that the recipient fully understands the topic being explained. One aspect that may seem obvious is the importance of knowing how to use punctuation correctly: semicolons, question marks, etc.

      type

      There are basically 4 main types of informational text. Here they are described, with all their distinctive features.

      1. News

      It is the description of a recent event that the issuer wishes to make public. This is the informative reference text, because in the news the sender tries to explain the event as truthfully as possible.

      The editor must report the facts in the most objective way possible, offering all the information he can, looking for witnesses to experience the event and interviewing them. What should never be done is to falsify information with the intention of offering your own view of the event and thus manipulating public opinion.

      Each report attempts to answer six questions:

      • What happened?
      • When it has arrived?
      • Where did this happen?
      • Who or what was he involved?
      • How did it happen?
      • Why did this happen?

      Regarding its structure, the news presents the following parts:

      Title: This is a single line that conveys the central idea of ​​the news and invites the reader to read it.

      • holder: This is the name of the news and must be related to the topic explained.
      • descent: The information presented in the title is expanded.
      • Direct: This is the first paragraph of the news, where the main one is summarized.
      • Cos: Dig deeper into the facts. The information presented ranges from the most basic to the least important.

      2. Official letter

      Its main objective is to transmit to the receiver information which concerns him, which must be taken seriously.

      Typically formal letters they are written by people who are not personally known or with whom you do not have a friendly relationship and camaraderie. This type of informational text can also be written to an authority or a company, to give a few examples.

      Formal letters can express opinions, feelings, justify an action, or simply describe to another person a set of events.

      In this type of texts it is very important to show a respectful tone and take care of the language used.

      They follow the following structure:

      • Date and place where it was written.
      • Header: The name to which it is addressed is written.
      • Courteous and formal greetings.
      • Introduction: it is the first paragraph of the letter and contains the information which will allow to understand the rest of what will be exposed.
      • Body: All event or theme information is explained.
      • Farewell: the main idea of ​​the letter is summarized and politely rejected.
      • Company

      3. Memorandum or memorandum

      It’s basically a letter, but much shorter. It is widely used in business and other types of organizations, because allows you to communicate quickly and concisely.

      In this type of informative text, the language is formal, but it does not require all of the protocol aspects that are in the letters.

      It consists of the following parts:

      • Title: usually “memo” or “memorandum”.
      • Header: puts who sends it, for whom and the reference of the subject of the memorandum.
      • greeting
      • Body: the information to be transmitted.
      • goodbye
      • Company
      • The data

      4. Report

      It is an informative text whose purpose is to disseminate. It is for this reason that it is a type of text widely used in scientific disciplines, research or to describe the situation of a company.

      In the case of an informative text, it should be noted that its purpose is not to convince its reader. However, in such texts recommendations can be included to guide those reading it towards a specific goal.

      Although it has all the characteristics of informative texts, it does not have a defined structure. However, elements can be found in most of them:

      • The data
      • Title
      • Body: When it comes to awareness text, it is very important that it contains all the information possible and in the most objective way.
      • Company

      Bibliographical references:

      • Alfonso, I. (1997): The informative text. Caracas, Contexto Editores.
      • Díaz, A. (1987) Approach to the written text. Medellín, Colombia, Editorial University of Antioch.

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