Understand each other and those around us, Being able to see and interpret reality, to know why things happen, to develop strategies that allow us to solve problems …
Knowledge is something that human beings have been looking for since the dawn of time. However, the search for information that makes it possible to understand the world and make inferences from that data has made it possible to generate it. different types of knowledge. In this article, we present some of the most well-known types.
The concept of “ knowledge ”
By knowledge, we mean all the interdependent information linked to one or more subjects whose origin is experience, reflection, sensations and reflection about them. It allows us to interpret the world and use that interpretation to respond to situations and stimuli.
Although when we talk about knowledge we often refer to scientific knowledge, there are different forms and types of knowledge depending on where this knowledge comes from, how it relates to experience and how it is applied. .
Types of knowledge
There are many ways to classify the different types of existing knowledge, through the type of information by which it is known or the way in which the information is acquired or processed. Some of the main ones are as follows, although several of them may overlap in some ways.
1. Philosophical knowledge
In that case it is based on introspection and reflection on reality and the circumstances around us and the world, sometimes based on experience given by direct observations of natural or social phenomena. Thus, we start from observation and reflection without reaching experimentation, and from this knowledge flow various methodologies and techniques that allow speculation to become scientific knowledge over time.
There are perspectives that philosophical knowledge must be a form of knowledge production based solely on thought itself, regardless of the source from which the processed information comes, while in others it must be concentrate on subjects dealt with directly by science (applied or not). ) or by story. Although this debate is not closed, there is no doubt that historically philosophical knowledge has been independent of scienceConsidering, among other things, that its existence dates back to long before the Scientific Revolution.
2. Empirical knowledge
Empirical is one of the types of knowledge based on the observable directly. It is considered empirical knowledge for anyone we learn in the environment through personal experience. It is based on observation without considering using a method to investigate the phenomena or their level of generalization.
However, it should be noted that there is no such thing as pure empirical knowledge, because every time we look around we are applying a series of beliefs, categories of thought and theories or pseudo-theories to what we perceive. , to be able to interpret to reach conclusions. .
3. Scientific knowledge
Similar to empirical knowledge in that it starts from the observation of reality and is based on demonstrable phenomena, this time we are faced with one of the types of knowledge in which a critical analysis of reality is carried out from the control (Experimental or not) to be able to draw valid conclusions. Scientific knowledge allows criticism and modification of its basic conclusions and premises.
On the other hand, scientific knowledge is closely linked to the historical development of human thought; it is something that did not exist centuries ago, because science did not exist.
4. Intuitive knowledge
Intuitive knowledge is a type of knowledge in which the relationship between phenomena or information is carried out through a subconscious process, without there being enough objective information at an observable level to develop this knowledge and without the need for direct verification of its veracity. It is linked to experience and to the association of ideas and sensations.
For example, one can assume that someone is angry because they have arched eyebrows and tight facial muscles or their behavior is colder than usual, and one can also associate the way of speaking with a person with a “soft” concept.
5. Religious or revealed knowledge
It is a type of knowledge derived from the faith and beliefs of people. The data reflected and considered to be true by this type of knowledge cannot be proved or falsified from the observable, being deduced from the internalization of various religious dogmas.
While it can be critical of oneself and develop in different ways, generally this type of knowledge tends to be transmitted without too much effort to vary its axioms.
6. Declarative knowledge
By declarative knowledge we mean that in which we are able to know theoretical information about things, being fully aware of this knowledge and establishing it in the form of an idea or a proposition. These ideas may or may not be verified later.. It allows abstraction and reflection on information, as well as its elaboration.
7. Procedural knowledge
This type of knowledge, sometimes referred to as tacit knowledge, is applied to the management of new problems in a personal or professional field in which a great deal of experience and fluency has been acquired. Moreover, what is learned cannot be expressed verbally, but concerns movements performed in a given time and space.
It refers to the type of knowledge that it lets us know how to do something, Although conceptually we don’t have any kind of knowledge about what we do. For example, we may know how to ride a bicycle or drive even if we do not know the principles that govern these behaviors. It is therefore a type of knowledge that goes beyond words.
8. Direct knowledge
It is based on direct experimentation with the object of knowledge, obtaining first-hand information about this object. Therefore, it does not depend on the interpretation of others.
9. Indirect knowledge or by proxy
In indirect knowledge we learn something from other information without directly experiencing the object of study. For example, when we study a textbook, we acquire indirect knowledge about the subject in question.
10. Logical knowledge
This type of knowledge is based on the derivation of conclusions consistent with the premises on which it is based. It is information that follows the rules of deductive reasoning and the process can be summarized by syllogisms. For example: if it rains, the ground is wet; it rained so the ground got wet.
11. Mathematical knowledge
It is another type of knowledge that is most related to logic, but it is not exactly like the previous one. In this case, the content of the propositions used to extract the information is based exclusively on numbers and mathematical operations. Therefore, it does not refer directly to material elements, but to the relationships between numbers, which has to do with a more abstract type of reasoning.
12. Knowledge of systems
This type of knowledge refers to the ability to generate systems from individual elements that can be combined each other. It is a technical field related to mathematics and commonly used in programming and professions such as architecture or sociology.
13. Knowledge private
It is based on personal autobiographical experiences, and by themselves is not available to a large group of people.
14. Public knowledge
It is part of popular culture and its content has been disseminated across many groups and strata of society.
Other types of knowledge
There are other ways of classifying knowledge which can vary greatly in terms of specificity or the element in question which is known, i.e. according to its subject. For example, we can find the existence of intrapersonal (self-respect), interpersonal, artistic, political, technical or medical knowledge, among others.
- Beuchot, Maurice (2003). Analogue and threshold hermeneutics. Salamanca, Sant Esteve, 2003.
- Moulines Castellví, C. Ulises (1973). The structure of the sensible world. Phenomenalist systems. Barcelona. Ariel.
- Zubiri, X. (1982). Intelligence and logos. Madrid. Publishing Alliance.