There are many folds in our brain, especially our cerebral cortex. The so-called bends in the brain are with the grooves that accompany them one of the most striking things when looking at a brain from the outside, giving it a wrinkled appearance which nevertheless allows the brain of the matter can be a too compact.
These twists are not simply aesthetic: as brain matter, they participate in the various functions that our cortex performs. In this article we will see what are the cerebral torsions and we will go over the characteristics of some of the best known.
What is a cerebral torsion?
Let’s start with a definition of what a brain torsion is. We call the brain transforms the set of folds visible in our cerebral cortex, Generated by bending over on itself as the brain grows and allowing the brain to be larger, making the space it occupies much smaller than expected if it had been extended.
Also called convolutions, cerebral twists are said to be the part of the fold that protrudes, being the parts that remain inwardly of the grooves. These structures are formed throughout the brain development of the fetus, without having them from the beginning. Gradually they will observe more and more, until they can observe their presence throughout the cerebral cortex.
They are protections of the brain matter, specifically gray matter. This implies that the brain turns are mostly made up of glial cells and sums of neurons, which are the part of the neuron that emits information that will then be sent by the axon to the next neuron or target organ.
Main cerebral twists
Since they occupy the entire surface of the cerebral cortex, we must consider that there are a lot of cerebral twists. Each of them has different functions in the system. Below we will discuss some of the most important and well-known, although it should be remembered that there are many more that will be featured in this article.
1. Pre-central rotation
Also called prerolandic gyration, this turn is located in front of Rolando’s slit (In other words, it would be more towards the face than this slit). The brain matter that is part of it corresponds to the primary motor zone.
2. Post-central rotation
Unlike the precentral, the post-central turn is located after or after the Rolando lunge. On this occasion, we would be confronted with a brain rotation which would be part of the primary somatosensory cortex, Link with somatic perception and bodily sensitivity.
3. Dentate gyrus
Circumvolution present in the lower part of the temporal lobe and part of the hippocampal formation, connecting it to the rest of the cortex. Specifically, it acts like bridge between the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. Its functions are related to memory, spatial navigation and the integration of emotion into memories.
4. Giro cingulat
Like the previous one, this important cerebral gyrus plays an important role in integration and connection of the limbic system and the cerebral cortex. Located near the corpus callosum, it is associated with the perception of anxiety, pleasure, fear, the initiation of goal-oriented behavior, voluntary movement, voice modulation or the direction of attention and motivation.
5. Angular rotation
It is one of the most famous brain twists, especially for its implication in language and mathematics. It helps to enable the production and understanding of sentences with meaning, as well as the understanding of written language. He is also involved in arithmetic ability and the interpretation of quantities, in addition to connection with aspects such as behavioral control, symbol coding and creativity.
6. Supramarginial circumference
Present in the parietal lobe above Silvio’s cleft, it is another of the most well-known cerebral towers. One of the functions for which he is best known is his involvement in enable literacy, Integration of information from the visual and auditory pathways. Working memory or tactile perception are also influenced by this convolution.
7. Parahippocampal rotation
With an important role in terms of memory, parahippocampal rotation is found around the hippocampus. The function most associated with this tour is that of store and retrieve stored information.
8. Shape of the spindle
The fusiform bend, which lies between the temporal and the occipital and can be divided into two sub-coils called lateral and medial occipitotemporal rotation, appears to be involved in aspects such as visual recognition of words and faces, As well as the processing of color information or the differentiation between memory and non-memory.
It is also associated with the identification of categories, deduction and understanding of figurative language.
9. Lingual rotation
This cerebral gyrus is located next to the parahippocampus and is in contact with the lateral and calcareous furrows, having a relevant role in the processing of visual information and transformation of graphic information into auditory information in reading.
As we’ve mentioned so far, these are just a few of the very diverse twists found in the brain. In addition to the above, we can find, among others, the following.
- Island turns: long and short.
- Occipital rotates.
- Superior forward rotation.
- Front turn in the middle.
- Lower turn.
- Superior temporal gyrus.
- Average time lap.
- Lower temporal turn.
- Supracalar gyrus.
- Orbital rotation.
- Triangular turn.
- Opercular rotation.
- Turn straight ahead.
- olfactory gir.
- Precuneiform turn.
- Cuneiform turn.
- Parachutist route.
- Clark, DL; Boutros, NN and Méndez, MF (2012). The brain and behavior: neuroanatomy by psychologists. 2nd edition. The modern manual. Mexico.
- Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM (2001). Principles of neuroscience. Madrid: McGraw Hill.
- Snell, RS (1999). Clinical neuroanatomy. Buenos Aires: Editorial Mèdica Panamericana, SA: 267.