Human brain: its main structures and areas

The thinking organ. Our brain is one of the most important areas of the body, As it regulates the various vital functions that allow our survival. It also allows us to be who we are.

Reason, emotion, motivation … all this finds its origin in the nervous system and especially in the brain. But this organ is not a homogeneous thing, but is structured in different zones. That is why in this article we will mention the different structures of the brain.

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What do we mean by brain?

We called it brain at the functional center of the nervous system, Located at the upper end of the neural tube. Located inside the skull and protected by it and the meninges against damage and external aggressions, it is the most important organ to be the one that regulates and controls all the functions of the organism, allowing the human life and survival. Moreover, thanks to it, we are able to think, to reflect, to have feelings and emotions, to identify with something or with someone and, in general, and even to be aware of ourselves- same.

The brain itself is considered to be mainly formed by the crust and subcortex, not entering into the brainstem or the cerebellum. Despite this, brain and brain are often used as synonyms and generally when we talk about the brain we are referring to the whole brain.

Main brain structures

The brain is made up of a large number of structures, being able to divide the brain into different parts. During our development, we can find three main areas of the brain, the hindbrain or hindbrain, the midbrain or mesencephalon, and the forebrain or forebrain (which is then divided into diencephalon and telencephalon), each with several brain structures.

1. Rhombencephalon

Located in the lower part of the brain, the hindbrain is the part of the brain in which the most primitive structures are found of that. It is the part of the brain that comes into contact with the spinal cord and regulates the most basic vital functions.

In this division of the brain, we can see two subdivisions, located in each of them different structures of the brain. Next to the midbrain, it is also part of the brainstem a brainstem.

medulla oblongata

It is one of the brain structures that are part of the hindbrain, which is derived from the myelencephalon. The medulla oblongata it is the point of connection between the spinal cord and the brainBeing an essential part of the brain for survival as it is responsible for managing processes such as heart rate, motor skills and digestion.

Protrusion or Varolio bridge

The bulge is another of the most vital brain structures for simple survival, to be able to cause his wound death. It is responsible for the movement of the viscera, homeostatic processes such as temperature maintenance, and participates in the regulation of consciousness and respiration.


This part of the brain is known to be involved in a large number of processes and functions in the body. Specially recognized for its role in the control of muscle movement, Also participates in aspects such as emotional regulation or cognitive processes such as memory and intelligence.

    2. Mesencephalon

    The midbrain or midbrain is the part of the brain located between the forebrain and the hindbrain. It unites the two regions and enables communication between them, also having great importance for the control of vital processes. Like the hindbrain, it is part of the brainstem or brainstem. It helps integrate information in different ways and is related to the level of consciousness. In this region we can find basically two brain structures.


    located in the most dorsal part of the midbrainThis structure is related to the response to sound stimuli and the reflex control of eye movements.


    Formed in turn by structures such as the substantia nigra, the red nucleus or the gray periaqueductal substance, this structure of the brain is involved in functions such as movement, pain management and fight-or-flight reactions.

    3. Forebrain

    It is the most developed part of the brain and has more structures, take charge of higher mental functions. We can differentiate two large areas, the diencephalon and the telencephalon.

    3.1. diencephalon

    Located deep in the brain, the diencephalon is an internal part of the forebrain that is mainly made up of two large brain structures. thalamus and hypothalamus.


    This region of the brain is the main core of the integration of sensitive information, Allowing to maintain a coordinated perception vis-à-vis the external stimulation before being able to send it to other areas of the brain in which the information is processed. Moreover, thanks to its connection to the limbic system, it allows to link perception and emotion.


    The hypothalamus is one of the structures of the brain linked to the regulation of different hormones that allow the management of the organization. Connected to the pituitary gland, it participates in a large number of coordinated processes related to the autonomic nervous system, such as arousal, sexual behavior, hunger and thirst, or affectivity. It is essential in the control of bodily homeostasis.

      3.2. Telencephalon

      If we consider the brain as a part of the brain and not as a synonym of it, we would be that the brain is the part of the brain equivalent to the telencephalon. Within it we can find different systems which in turn are made up of different structures.

      Cerebral cortex

      The most visible and recognizable part of the brain, the cerebral cortex is the area of ​​the brain in which the integration and processing of information and thanks to which the most complex functions are performed, Allow aspects such as reasoning, speaking, executive functions or fine motor skills.

      the crust it is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. In addition to this, we can establish five differentiated lobes specialized in various functions, the frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal lobes, in addition to the insula.

      basal ganglia

      A small group of brain structures that they are located under the bark, The basal ganglia are of great importance in the automatic control of functions. They relate to the learning and automation of tasks, as well as memory or movement. The putamen, the pale balloon and the caudate nucleus are its main components.

      Limbic system

      The limbic system is a system of different brain structures that they are in charge of managing emotions, Learning and memory. Some of its main components are the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus or the nipples.

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